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Abnormally high concentrations of amphetamine in blood of impaired drivers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9098
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2005 Sep;50(5):1215-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
A W Jones
A. Holmgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Toxicology, University Hospital, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden. wayne.jones@RMV.se
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2005 Sep;50(5):1215-20
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amphetamine - blood
Amphetamine-Related Disorders - blood - diagnosis
Automobile Driving
Benzodiazepines - blood
Central Nervous System Stimulants - blood
Databases
Female
Forensic Medicine
Hallucinogens - blood
Humans
Male
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Substance Abuse Detection
Sweden
Tetrahydrocannabinol - blood
Abstract
We present a case series (N = 46) of individuals apprehended in Sweden for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). These cases were selected because the concentrations of amphetamine in blood were abnormally high (> 5.0 mg/L), the highest being 17 mg/L. In comparison, the median blood-amphetamine concentration in a population of DUID offenders (N = 6,613) was 0.70 mg/L. Among the DUID suspects with extremely high blood-amphetamine concentrations there were 38 men (83%) with mean age of 37.8 y (SD 6.8 y) and 8 women (17%) with a mean age of 34.1 y (SD 4.3 y). All had previously been registered in our database (mean 12 times, median 9 times) for drug-related offences, including DUID. The concentration of amphetamine in blood of female offenders was slightly higher than the concentration in male offenders (6.6 mg/L vs. 5.8 mg/L), although this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The drugs other than amphetamine most frequently encountered in the blood samples were tetrahydrocannabinol and benzodiazepines (diazepam and nordiazepam). The commonest signs of drug use reported by the arresting police officers were bloodshot and glazed (watery) eyes, restlessness, talkativeness, exaggerated reflexes and slurred speech. Unsteady gait and dilated pupils were observed in some but not all individuals. These very high concentrations of amphetamine were tolerated without any fatalities indicating a pronounced adaptation to the pharmacologic effects of this central stimulant. Anecdotal information indicated that those with the very highest concentrations of amphetamine in blood had swallowed the drug to prevent being apprehended in possession of an illicit substance.
PubMed ID
16225234 View in PubMed
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Absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by breast-fed infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59296
Source
Chemosphere. 1995 Jun;30(12):2297-306
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1995
Author
P. Dahl
G. Lindström
K. Wiberg
C. Rappe
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Chemistry, University of Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Chemosphere. 1995 Jun;30(12):2297-306
Date
Jun-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Benzofurans - metabolism
Body Burden
Breast Feeding
Comparative Study
Feces - chemistry
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Mass Fragmentography
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analogs & derivatives - metabolism
Abstract
The absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans was studied in four breast-fed infants. The absorption was measured by comparing the estimated total intake and the excretion in faeces, during 48 hours, at three different time points; 1, 2 and 3 months post parta. The levels of the analysed compounds in the human milk are typical for Sweden, i.e approximately 20 ppt toxic equivalents for the dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and for the polychlorinated biphenyls approximately 16 ppt toxic equivalents. For most of the congeners the absorption is found to be over 95%. Higher excretion is noticed for heptachlorinated and octachlorinated dioxins.
PubMed ID
7620852 View in PubMed
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Accidental fatal monochloroacetic acid poisoning.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4081
Source
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1995 Jun;16(2):115-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1995
Author
D R Rogers
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, Alaska Regional Hospital, Anchorage 99508, USA.
Source
Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1995 Jun;16(2):115-6
Date
Jun-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Home
Acetic Acids - blood - poisoning
Child, Preschool
Death, Sudden - etiology
Female
Humans
Mass Fragmentography
Warts - drug therapy
Abstract
A case of accidental lethal monochloroacetic acid poisoning is presented, along with a brief review of the mechanisms of intoxication. Although lethal skin exposures have been previously reported, this case appears to be the first instance of oral-route poisoning to be documented.
PubMed ID
7572862 View in PubMed
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Airways symptoms, immunological response and exposure in powder painting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15090
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005 Mar;78(2):123-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2005
Author
Anna Blomqvist
Meltem Düzakin-Nystedt
Carl-Göran Ohlson
Lennart Andersson
Bo Jönsson
Jörn Nielsen
Hans Welinder
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Central Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005 Mar;78(2):123-31
Date
Mar-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerosols - toxicity
Aged
Anhydrides - blood - immunology - urine
Comparative Study
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Humans
Immunoglobulin G
Industry
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Lung Volume Measurements
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Paint - toxicity
Powders - toxicity
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - chemically induced - epidemiology - immunology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Powder painting is an alternative to solvent-based spray painting. Powder paints may contain organic acid anhydrides (OAAs), which are irritants to the airways and may cause sensitisation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and immunological response among powder painters and to describe the exposure to OAAs. METHODS: In all, 205 subjects in 32 enterprises participated: 93 exposed and 26 formerly exposed workers in 25 powder paint shops and 86 unexposed workers. They completed a questionnaire about working conditions and symptoms and took part in a medical examination, which included a lung function test. Urine samples, for determination of two OAAs, and blood samples, for analysis of specific antibodies against the OAAs, were taken. In addition, 33 paint samples were analysed for nine OAAs. RESULTS: The powder painters reported more work-related respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects did. The prevalence of three or more symptoms was 24% in subjects with low exposure, 44% in highly exposed individuals, 46% in formerly exposed subjects and 19% in unexposed workers. Asthma symptoms were frequent, 7%, 40%, 15% and 2%, respectively. Regression analyses of the lung volumes did not show any influence of exposure. IgG, but not IgE, against the OAAs and metabolites of OAAs was found in some subjects, but no associations with the exposure could be observed. OAAs were found in only small amounts in the paint samples. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure to organic acid anhydrides was estimated to be low, and yet, IgG antibodies to OAA were observed in some subjects. The prevalence of work-related symptoms from the eyes and the airways was relatively high among the powder painters, and these symptoms, but not the lung volumes, were clearly related to exposure. The symptoms were probably caused by irritative properties of the powder paint dust.
PubMed ID
15726393 View in PubMed
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Analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Swedish human milk. A time-related trend study, 1972-1997.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49225
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1999 Nov 26;58(6):329-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-26-1999
Author
D. Meironyté
K. Norén
A. Bergman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Daiva.Meironyte@mbb.ki.se
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1999 Nov 26;58(6):329-41
Date
Nov-26-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environmental health - trends
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Humans
Infant
Mass Fragmentography
Milk, human - chemistry
Phenyl Ethers - analysis
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
A previously described method for analysis of organochlorine compounds in human milk was adopted for analysis of brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) substituted with three to six bromine atoms. Analytes were extracted from human milk with the lipophilic gel Lipidex 5000. Further purifications were performed on partly deactivated aluminum oxide and silica gel columns, followed by gel permeation chromatography. The concentrations of BDEs were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The average recoveries of 2,2',4-triBDE (BDE-17), 2,4,4'-triBDE (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE (BDE-47), 2,3',4,4'-tetraBDE (BDE-66), 2,2,3,4,4'-pentaBDE (BDE-85), 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE (BDE-153), and 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexaBDE (BDE-154) added to the samples before extraction ranged from 86% to 102%. Pooled samples of breast milk, collected at eight time periods between 1972 and 1997, were analyzed for PBDEs. BDE-47 was the most abundant PBDE congener in all samples. In total, eight PBDE congeners were identified in the milk. The sum of the concentrations of BDE congeners in human milk increased from 0.07 to 4.02 ng/g lipids during the 25-yr period studied.
PubMed ID
10580757 View in PubMed
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Blood concentrations of persistent toxic substances in the Indigenous communities of the Russian Arctic

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4449
Source
Pages 179-182 of Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
  1 document  
Author
Dudarev AA
Konoplev AV
Sandanger TM
Vlasov SV
Miretsky GI
Samsonov DP
Chernik GV
Morshina TN
Pasynkova EM
Pervunina RI
Dorofeev VM
Chaschin MV
Sedenkov DA
Zibarev EV
Kuzmin AV
Abryutina LI
Kimstach VA
Chaschin VP
Author Affiliation
North-West Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia. dudarev@sp.ru
Source
Pages 179-182 of Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Female
Food chain
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Mass Fragmentography
Milk, human - chemistry
Population Groups
Pregnancy
Russia
Toxins, biological - analysis - blood
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Investigation was carried out within the framework of the large-scale international project "Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), Food Security and Indigenous People of the Russian North" under RAIPON/AMAP/GEF aegis. Objectives of the project are to obtain comprehensive information on exposure of indigenous populations to contaminants through food chains (and other sources), and to investigate the possible health effects connected to this exposure. Four regions of Russia are involved in the project: Kola Peninsula (Murmansk oblast), Nenetsk okrug (Pechora river basin), Taimyr Peninsula, Chukotka Peninsula. METHODS: Questionnaire and paired sampling of maternal/cord blood among indigenous women at childbirth (more than 250 persons) as well as among general indigenous population (more than 1,400 persons), additionally breast milk sampling of lactating women (more than 50 persons) in Chukotka was conducted. About 700 blood samples have been analyzed at the Center for Environmental Chemistry, SPA "Typhoon" (Obninsk, Russia), the Regional Center "Monitoring of the Arctic", RCMA (St. Petersburg, Russia), the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU (Tromso, Norway) and at INSPQ (Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: On the whole, PTS in human blood of the Russian Arctic natives are similar to those in the coastal areas of Greenland and Canada, and for some POPs such as toxaphenes and mirex, these levels are lower.
PubMed ID
15736647 View in PubMed
Documents
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Brominated flame retardants in archived serum samples from Norway: a study on temporal trends and the role of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31584
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2002
Author
Cathrine Thomsen
Elsa Lundanes
Georg Becher
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. cathrine.thomsen@folkehelsa.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-8
Date
Apr-1-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Body Burden
Bromine Compounds - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Norway
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
The temporal trends and influence of age and gender on levels of selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in human serum have been assessed by analyzing archived samples from Norway. Serum from 40 to 50 year old men collected at six time periods during 1977 to 1999 and from eight groups of differing age and gender sampled in 1998 were pooled into six and eight samples, respectively. The BFRs were isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the serum lipids decomposed bytreatmentwith concentrated sulfuric acid directly on the polystyrene-divinylbenzene SPE column, prior to elution of the BFRs. Following diazomethane derivatization, the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture mass spectrometry. Eight BFRs were quantified in the serum samples: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A). The serum concentrations of all the BFRs, increased during the entire period with the exception of TriBP, and the sum of the six polybrominated diphenyl ethers increased from 0.44 ng/g lipids in 1977 to 3.3 ng/g lipids in 1999. The BFR concentrations in the serum from the different age groups were relatively similar, except for the age group 0-4 years, which had 1.6-3.5 times higher serum concentrations. Women older than 25 years had lower serum concentrations of BFRs compared to the corresponding group of men. No trend related to age or gender, nor time during the period 1977 to 1999 was observed for TriBP. The present study indicates an ongoing increase in human exposure to BFRs, and the current body burden appears to be independent of age, except for infants (0-4 years old), who seem to experience elevated exposure.
Notes
Comment In: Environ Sci Technol. 2002 May 1;36(9):188A-192A12026967
PubMed ID
11999045 View in PubMed
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Chemotypical variation of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from 40 different locations in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9514
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Mar 24;52(6):1742-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-24-2004
Author
Jens Rohloff
Ruth Mordal
Steinar Dragland
Author Affiliation
The Plant Biocenter, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim, Norway. jens.rohloff@bio.ntnu.no
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Mar 24;52(6):1742-8
Date
Mar-24-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Comparative Study
Flowers - chemistry
Mass Fragmentography
Norway
Oils, Volatile - chemistry
Plant Leaves - chemistry
Plant Oils - chemistry
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Species Specificity
Tanacetum - chemistry
Terpenes - analysis
Volatilization
Abstract
Between 2001 and 2002, plant collections from wild populations of Norwegian tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) were studied with a focus on essential oil (EO) yield and composition in order to characterize the chemotypical EO variability. Tansy collections of 40 different locations from North, Mid-, and South Norway were transplanted to the Apelsvoll Research Centre Div. Kise in 2000 and grown for 2 years before the aerial parts (leaves and flower buds) were harvested in June 2002. The EO from individual plants was isolated from dried plant material by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on a DB5 column at the Plant Biocenter. The EO yield ranged between 0.35 and 1.90% (v/w) (average: 0.81%); the most abundant thujone plants were especially rich in EO volatiles (0.95%). On the basis of GC-MS data, seven chemotypes could be identified as follows: A, alpha-thujone (two individuals); B, beta-thujone (22); C, camphor (six); D, chrysanthenyl acetate/chrysanthenol (three); E, chrysanthenone (two); F, artemisia ketone/artemisia alcohol (three); and G, 1,8-cineole (two). The thujone chemotype was dominated by beta-thujone (81%) associated with alpha-thujone, but tansy plants rich in alpha-thujone were also detected (61%). The chemotypical classification of Norwegian tansy genotypes was underscored by preliminary studies from 2001, indicating the genetic uniformity and biochemical stability of the domesticated plants.
PubMed ID
15030239 View in PubMed
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Concentration ratios of morphine to codeine in blood of impaired drivers as evidence of heroin use and not medication with codeine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10110
Source
Clin Chem. 2001 Nov;47(11):1980-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
G. Ceder
A W Jones
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Chemistry, University Hospital, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Clin Chem. 2001 Nov;47(11):1980-4
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Automobile Driving
Codeine - blood - urine
Heroin Dependence - blood - urine
Humans
Immunoassay
Mass Fragmentography
Morphine - blood - urine
Morphine Derivatives - blood - urine
Substance Abuse Detection - methods
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Both the illicit drug heroin and the prescription drug codeine are metabolized to morphine, which tends to complicate interpretation of opiate-positive samples. We report here the concentrations of morphine and codeine, the morphine/codeine ratios, and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in blood specimens from individuals arrested for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) in Sweden. The results were compared with positive findings of 6-AM in urine as evidence of heroin intake. METHODS: In 339 DUID suspects, both blood and urine specimens were available for toxicologic analysis. In another 882 cases, only blood was available. All specimens were initially analyzed by immunoassay, and the positive results were verified by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In routine casework, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for unconjugated opiates were 5 ng/g for blood and 20 microg/L for urine. RESULTS: The median concentration of morphine in blood was 30 ng/g with 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of 5 and 230 ng/g, respectively (n = 979). This compares with a median codeine concentration of 20 ng/g and 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of 5 and 592 ng/g, respectively (n = 784). The specific metabolite of heroin, 6-AM, was identified in only 16 of 675 blood specimens (2.3%). This compares with positive findings of 6-AM in 212 of 339 urine samples (62%) from the same population of DUID suspects. When 6-AM was identified in urine, the morphine/codeine ratio in blood was always greater than unity (median, 6.0; range, 1-66). In 18 instances, 6-AM was present in urine, although morphine and codeine were below the LOQ in blood. The morphine/codeine ratio in blood was greater than unity in 85% of DUID cases when urine was not available (n = 506), and the median morphine and codeine concentrations were 70 ng/g and 10 ng/g, respectively. When morphine/codeine ratios in blood were less than unity (n = 76), the median morphine and codeine concentrations were 10 ng/g and 180 ng/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Only 2.3% of opiate-positive DUID suspects were verified as heroin users on the basis of positive findings of 6-AM in blood. A much higher proportion (62%) were verified heroin users from 6-AM identified in urine. When urine was not available for analysis, finding a morphine/codeine concentration ratio in blood above unity suggests heroin use and not medication with codeine. This biomarker indicated that 85% of opiate-positive DUID blood samples were from heroin users.
PubMed ID
11673366 View in PubMed
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A cross-sectional study of the association between persistent organochlorine pollutants and diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46956
Source
Environ Health. 2005;4:28
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Lars Rylander
Anna Rignell-Hydbom
Lars Hagmar
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Psychiatric Epidemiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden. lars.rylander@med.lu.se
Source
Environ Health. 2005;4:28
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - chemically induced - epidemiology
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood - toxicity
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Fisheries
Food chain
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood - toxicity
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - toxicity
Prevalence
Seafood
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may cause type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas there is no fully convincing epidemiological evidence for such an association. In Sweden the most important source of POP exposure is fatty fish. We have assessed the association between serum levels of POPs and prevalence of diabetes in Swedish fishermen and their wives, with high consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. METHODS: In 196 men (median age 60 years) and 184 women (median age 64 years), we analyzed 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) in serum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The participants were asked if they had diabetes and, if so, since which year and about medication and diet. The Odds Ratios (OR) for diabetes with respect to continuous exposure variables were analyzed with logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover trends of diabetes prevalence with respect to trichotomized exposure variables were tested with Jonckheere-Terpstra's test. RESULTS: Six percent of the men and 5% of the women had diabetes. After confounder adjustment CB-153 was significantly associated with diabetes prevalence using both categorized and continuous exposure data (an increase of 100 ng/g lipid corresponded to an OR of 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.32, p = 0.03). Similar associations were observed for p,p'-DDE (an increase of 100 ng/g lipid corresponded to an OR of 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.09, p = 0.006). Gender stratified analyses showed among men consistent positive associations with CB-153, but a more ambiguous pattern with respect to DDE. In contrast, among the women the associations with p,p'-DDE were stronger than with CB-153. CONCLUSION: The study provides support that POP exposure might contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PubMed ID
16316471 View in PubMed
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39 records – page 1 of 4.