The distribution of age at first marriage shows well-known strong regularities across many countries and recent historical periods. We accounted for these patterns by developing agent-based models that simulate the aggregate behavior of individuals who are searching for marriage partners. Past models assumed fully rational agents with complete knowledge of the marriage market; our simulated agents used psychologically plausible simple heuristic mate search rules that adjust aspiration levels on the basis of a sequence of encounters with potential partners. Substantial individual variation must be included in the models to account for the demographically observed age-at-marriage patterns.
The study compared anxiety and depression prevalence between parents and non-parents in a society with family- and parenthood-friendly social politics, controlling for family status and family history, age, gender, education and social class.
All participants aged 30-49 (N = 24,040) in the large, non-sampled Norwegian HUNT2 community health study completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales.
The slightly elevated anxiety and depression among non-parents compared to parents in the complete sample was not confirmed as statistically significant within any subgroups. Married parents and (previously unmarried) cohabiting parents did not differ in portraying low anxiety and depression prevalence. Anxiety was associated with single parenthood, living alone or being divorced, while elevated depression was found only among those living alone.
Burdening selection and cultural/political context are suggested as interpretative perspectives on the contextual and personal influences on the complex relationship between parenthood and mental health.
Cites: J Nerv Ment Dis. 2000 Nov;188(11):741-5011093376
Drawing on a sample of 372 French-Canadian couples, this study examined the factorial structure of a 20-item abbreviated version of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO) across a sample of couples and tested if identity diffusion, primitive defenses, and reality testing explain additional variance in couple distress when controlling for neuroticism. The IPO is based on Kernberg's conceptualization of personality organization (Kernberg, 1976 ). Gender differences were also studied through an examination of the value of both self-reported and partner-reported personality in the prediction of each partner's couple satisfaction. Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the tripartite model of the short version of the IPO provided an acceptable fit and proved invariant when tested on couples. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model analyses (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006 ) showed that elevated neuroticism predicted higher endorsement of primitive defenses, which in turn predict couple dissatisfaction. There was also a direct, negative path from neuroticism to dyadic adjustment. Finally, self-reported neuroticism scores predicted high utilization of primitive defenses by the partner, and low partner-reported couple satisfaction. Furthermore, high self-reported utilization of primitive defenses predicted low couple satisfaction.
The impact on family life and social relations that may result from symptoms associated with exposure to neurotoxic substances has never been addressed. This exploratory study assessed the associations between exposure to neurotoxic agents in the workplace, mental health, and marital difficulties.
Fifty-five (55) male workers and their spouses completed standardized measures of mental health and marital difficulties. Workers' exposure to neurotoxic substances was evaluated by questionnaire and interview, using a semiquantitative classification system.
A positive relation was observed between exposure level and measures of workers' psychological symptoms and marital stress; no relation was observed between workers' exposure level and wives' psychological symptoms. More severe exposure to neurotoxic substances was associated with wives' reports of more severe marital conflicts, and this association was mediated by husbands' psychological symptoms. As compared to low exposure husbands, high exposure husbands reported higher degrees of stress surrounding marital discussions, more consistent incidence of minor physical assaults by wives, and stronger associations between their levels of stress, the verbal aggressions of wives, and the number of marital conflicts.
The results of this study confirm that neurotoxic exposure is a risk factor for mental health and suggest how this may influence marital relations. Because of the importance of these findings for the well-being of workers and their families, these associations should be further studied.
Intimate partner violence by men against women has detrimental effects on equality, health and integration. Migrated and 'imported' wives experience an increased risk of intimate partner violence.
The purpose of this study was to explore Thai immigrant women's lived experiences of intimate partner violence in Sweden.
Semi-structured interviews based on the critical incident technique with specific questions about experiences of male-to-female intimate partner violence were used to collect data. The participants were Thai immigrant women who had lived in Sweden for more than five years. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns and variations in the transcribed data material.
Eighteen interviewees reported psychological, physical, economic and/or sexual violence in their international marriages. These Thai women described being faithful and silent and reliable housewives. However, this did not keep them from being replaced and losing dignity as a result of intimate partner violence, including experiencing broken dreams and deception. Although their dreams were broken, they did not give up their efforts to achieve better lives in Sweden.
The vulnerability of imported wives in international marriages needs to be further recognised by health and welfare agencies in Sweden, as elsewhere, to ensure that these women have equal access to human rights, welfare and health as other citizens. From a health promotion perspective, home-based health check-ups are needed to stop the exploitation of imported wives. In Thailand, information and education about the unrecognised negative conditions of the Mia farang role (Imported wife role) need to be disseminated.
This is an exploratory qualitative study of 10 seniors (5 men and 5 women), who remarried or lived together after the age of 65. They were all Jewish, lived in Toronto, Canada, and had been married previously. The subjects were interviewed in their own homes, using a questionnaire. The study attempts to explore the pathways to recoupling, how the partners met, the differences between the first and second partners, and the major issues faced by the subjects in moving into a new relationship. The results in this article are significantly presented through the words of the respondents. This gives the reader the flavor of what is involved in senior relationships. The conclusions summarize the major findings of the study, and make suggestions for further research. We focus on implications for health and wellbeing from our findings.
Previous studies indicate that the emotional quality of marital relationships is mirrored in parent-child relationships. We explored the degree to which these associations are explained by genetic and environmental factors. Participants were drawn from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS), and included 544 female twin pairs (258 monozygotic [MZ], 286 dizygotic [DZ]), and 311 male twin pairs (128 MZ, 183 DZ). The spouses and one adolescent child of each twin also participated in this study. The twins completed self-report measures that assessed their marital quality and their warmth and negativity towards their children. Observational ratings of marital warmth and negativity, and of maternal warmth and negativity were obtained for a subset of female twin pairs (150 MZ, 176 DZ). Self-reported marital satisfaction was associated with self-reported parental warmth and negativity for mothers (rs = .25, -.36) and fathers (rs = .25, -.44). For the observational measures, marital warmth was associated with maternal warmth (r = .42), while marital negativity was associated with maternal negativity (r = .34). On average genetic factors explained nearly half of the covariance between self-reported marital satisfaction and parenting for mothers (48%) and fathers (47%). Genetic factors explained 21% of the covariance between observed marital and maternal warmth, but did not contribute to associations between marital and maternal negativity. These findings indicate that parents' genetically influenced characteristics help shape the emotional climate of the family.
Research suggests that the attitude of men towards pregnancy, childbirth and child-caring is different from that of women. Up to now, research has focused mainly on motherhood. The aim of this study was to explore first-time fathers' experiences during early infancy of their children. Grounded theory and constant comparative method were used and 20 fathers aged 20-48 participated. Interviews were carried out in 2002-2003. 'Changing life' emerged as the core category consisting of the categories: becoming a father, alternating between work and home, changing relationship towards partner and developing relationship with their child. Changing life implied that they have left bachelor life and become responsible for a child. Becoming a father was much more fantastic than they could have imagined and they suggested that they performed childcare to the same extent as the mother when both parents were at home. Still fathers viewed the mother as the main parent, partly because of their alternating between work and home and because the mothers breast-feed the infants. Fathers' attitude towards breast-feeding seemed to be ambiguous; it was a matter of necessity, but made them feel insignificant. Changing relationship towards partner was common but it was not necessarily for the worst and often resulted in a more closely united relationship. However, tiredness because of lack of sleep could result in increased irritability towards problems. Developing relationship with their child implied increasing possibilities to learn to know the infant's signals. Fathers are one of two parents, and hence are important for their child's growth and development, emotional health and cognitive development. Knowledge about first-time fathers' experiences during the early infancy of their children may bring about increased support from midwives and child health nurses.
This paper examines changing spousal roles and their effects upon recovery in Gamblers Anonymous (GA). It is based upon a qualitative study designed to gage uniformity as well as variations in approaches to recovery in GA. Interviews were conducted with 39 GA members (26 men, 13 women; mean age 56.5 years). Though the study was based in the Toronto area, only 13 interviews involved participants from that region. Phone interviews were conducted with GA members from various regions of both Canada and the US. GamAnon, GA's sister fellowship, has been designed for anyone affected seriously by someone's gambling problem. In practice, GamAnon comprises mostly women--spouses of male GA members--who traditionally have taken a keen interest in the ways in which their husbands achieve and maintain abstinence from gambling. Changing spousal roles have led to fewer women joining GamAnon, as many opt instead to part with troubled spouses. As well, more women are attending GA than in the past, typically with husbands who are disinclined to join GamAnon. All of this has drastically altered how GA members pursue recovery. These changes and their implications are discussed.
This study evaluated the applicability of the family economic stress model (FESM) in understanding the influences of economic hardship on child mental health during a nationwide economic recession in Finland. The information was gathered from 527 triads of 12-year-olds and their mothers and fathers from a population sample. The structural equation models showed that the FESM fit the data well, indicating its generalizability in Finnish society. The results confirmed that a reduction in disposable family income constitutes a risk for child mental health through increased economic pressure and negative changes in parental mental health, marital interaction, and parenting quality. Controlling the children's prerecession mental health substantiated that economic hardship can lead to deterioration in children's mental health. Alternative models based on fully recursive analyses revealed reciprocal influences between parents and their children over time: Children's prerecession mental health problems predicted compromised parenting, which in turn contributed to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms during the recession.