BACKGROUND: This study examined how interpersonal relationships, specifically marital quality and adequacy of social support, are associated with depressive symptoms among women. METHODS: A sample of 326 female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs and their spouses was drawn from the Swedish Twin Registry. Associations among the three variables were evaluated by comparing similarities among monozygotic and dizygotic female twin pairs. RESULTS: Interpersonal relationships contributed between 18% and 31% of the variance for depressive symptoms in women. Associations among the three variables were accounted for by genetic influences when women's reports were used. Non-shared environmental influences were important for the association between marital quality and depressive symptoms when a combination of husband and wife reports of marital quality were used. LIMITATIONS: The data is cross-sectional and the generalizability of these findings to depressive symptoms in men or to individuals with major depression is not clear. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate important associations among marital quality, social support and depressive symptoms in women, which should be taken into consideration for prevention and intervention strategies targeting depression.
"In this paper I tried to show how the ageing of the population influences the change in the growth of employment, employment structure, the savings ratio, economic growth and the cost of social security [in Sweden]. In the latter part of the paper I suggested a close correlation between the average marriage age of women, the total fertility rate and the work participation ratio of women." (SUMMARY IN ENG)
The study covers two materials from Malmö: 1. All 235 men who were granted temporary or permanent disability pension for the first time in 1964. 2. A group of 235 men randomly chosen from the 893 men who were granted temporary or permanent disability pension for the first time in 1974. In both materials, the number of convictions for drunkenness during the period 1932-74 was about 4.5 times as high as for Swedish men of the same age. One pensioner in three had been convicted. During the period 1939-74, one pensioner in ten in each material had been subjected to compulsory treatment by Temperance Boards.
In a consecutive series of 257 alcoholics from an out-patient department 53 were judged as assaultive and 38 as suicidally inclined at the clinical examination 20 years ago. At the follow-up the assaultive alcoholics had a 3.3 times increased mortality rate, the suicidally inclined 1.9 times and the others 1.7 times compared with the general population. The assaultive alcoholics had an increased rate of suicides, intoxications and other alcohol-related deaths compared with other alcoholics. Repeated assaultive behaviour was uncommon. It is concluded that a skilled psychiatric evaluation of assaultive behaviour in alcoholism has an important predictive value.
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between strain in domestic work and self-rated health among employed women in Sweden, using two different methods of measuring strain in domestic work. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected on health and living conditions in paid and unpaid work for employed women (n=1,417), aged 17-64 years. "Domestic job strain'' was an application of the demand-control model developed by Karasek and Theorell, and "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' was measured by questions on the division of and responsibility for domestic work and relationship with spouse/cohabiter. Self-rated health was measured using the SF-36 Health Survey. Associations were analysed by bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, and reported as standardized regression coefficients. RESULTS: Higher strain in domestic work was associated with lower self-rated health, also after controlling for potential confounders and according to both strain measures. "Domestic work equity and marital satisfaction'' showed for example negative associations with mental health beta -0.211 (p
The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.