To compare referral sources to a facial plastic surgery practice and to develop models correlating the referral source with the decision for surgery.
Retrospective descriptive study.
Well-established, metropolitan, private facial plastic surgery practice with training fellowship affiliated with an academic centre.
One-thousand eighty-nine new consecutive patients presenting between January 2001 and December 2005 recorded intake data including age, gender, and chief complaint. Final data input was their decision for or against surgery.
Main outcome measures included differences in referral sources based on data collected and how those sources related to decision for surgery.
A 50% conversion rate was found. Women and older patients were more likely to be referred from magazines, television, and newspapers and for facial rejuvenation. Men and younger patients were more likely to be referred from the website and for rhinoplasty. For facial rejuvenation, both the number of patients interested in and the probability that they agreed to the procedure increased with age. For rhinoplasty, the converse was true. The most likely patients to schedule surgery were those who were referred from other patients, friends, or family members in our practice.
The data confirm that word-of-mouth referrals are the most important source for predicting which patients will elect to proceed with surgery in this established facial cosmetic surgery practice.
This paper proposes a model for the design of effective warning labels concerning drinking and driving. One important aspect of the model is that producing a multiplicity of warning labels should result in a higher probability that at least a few of the warning labels will be of high quality and effectiveness. Secondly, greater similarity between the warning label designer and the intended target group should enhance the effectiveness of the warning label. In the present study, 49 warning labels were created by university undergraduates, and the effectiveness of these warning labels was assessed by a group of university students (target group members). A number of labels were judged as being effective, and more effective than the government warning label. Extending the notion of being close to the target group, warning labels designed by male and female university students for university students of the same sex were judged as more effective than warning labels designed for the opposite sex.
Regular analysis of questionnaires distributed among students of self-supporting workshops carried out at the Training Center is aimed at elucidating the students' opinions about organization of workshops in order to optimize it and at collection of marketing information on the training and medical activities of the firm. The majority (90%) of respondents gave a positive answer to the question: "Will you advise your colleagues to go to workshops at the Training Center?" Exhibitions of materials offered by the firm and training of students to use these materials demonstrate the advantages thereof. Analysis of questionnaires showed that just a little part of dentists know the true price of their work and that the major part of the market of dental service is oriented, judging by the proposed costs, mainly at the solvent population.
High adherence to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reported in observational studies has frequently been attributed to improved tolerability. However, these agents are also relatively new to the market compared to other antihypertensive medications. We aimed to determine if an association exists between adherence and market availability of a specific antihypertensive agent.
This retrospective cohort study used administrative data from Saskatchewan, Canada. Subjects were =40 years of age and received a new antihypertensive medication between 1994 and 2002. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects achieving optimal adherence (=80%) at 1 year, stratified by antihypertensive medication class and the year of availability. Adherence was measured using the cumulative mean gap ratio.
A total of 36,214 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Optimal adherence was observed in 4987 of 8623 (57.8%) subjects receiving ACEIs and 1013 of 1600 (63.3%) subjects receiving ARBs, but adherence appeared inconsistent when examined within each antihypertensive class. A pattern of increasing mean adherence was observed according to availability in the ACEI subgroup (Spearman r = 0.82; P = 0.007) but not the ARB subgroup (Spearman r = 0.41; P = 0.49). However, the association between availability and optimal adherence converged when ARB and ACEI users were combined (Spearman r = 0.85, P
Despite having access to medically necessary care available through publicly funded provincial health care systems, some Canadians travel for treatment provided at international medical facilities as well as for-profit clinics found in several Canadian provinces. Canadians travel abroad for orthopaedic surgery, bariatric surgery, ophthalmologic surgery, stem cell injections, "Liberation therapy" for multiple sclerosis, and additional interventions. Both responding to public interest in medical travel and playing an important part in promoting the notion of a global marketplace for health services, many Canadian companies market medical travel.
Research began with the goal of locating all medical tourism companies based in Canada. Various strategies were used to find such businesses. During the search process it became apparent that many Canadian business promoting medical travel are not medical tourism companies. To the contrary, numerous types of businesses promote medical travel. Once businesses promoting medical travel were identified, content analysis was used to extract information from company websites. Company websites were analyzed to establish: 1) where in Canada these businesses are located; 2) the destination countries and health care facilities that they market; 3) the medical procedures they promote; 4) core marketing messages; and 5) whether businesses market air travel, hotel accommodations, and holiday tours in addition to medical procedures.
Searches conducted from 2006 to 2011 resulted in identification of thirty-five Canadian businesses currently marketing various kinds of medical travel. The research project began with what seemed to be the straightforward goal of establishing how many medical tourism companies are based in Canada. Refinement of categories resulted in the identification of eighteen businesses fitting the category of what most researchers would identify as medical tourism companies. Seven other businesses market regional, cross-border health services available in the United States and intranational travel to clinics in Canada. In contrast to medical tourism companies, they do not market holiday tours in addition to medical care. Two companies occupy a narrow market niche and promote testing for CCSVI and "Liberation therapy" for multiple sclerosis. Three additional companies offer bariatric surgery and cosmetic surgery at facilities in Mexico. Four businesses offer health insurance products intended to cover the cost of obtaining privately financed health care in the U.S. These businesses also help their clients arrange treatment beyond Canada's borders. Finally, one medical travel company based in Canada markets health services primarily to U.S. citizens.
This article uses content analysis of websites of Canadian companies marketing medical travel to provide insight into Canada's medical travel industry. The article reveals a complex marketplace with different types of companies taking distinct approaches to marketing medical travel.
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To determine the extent to which policies and practices of Canadian hospitals providing maternity care are consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes and the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative.
Cross-sectional mailed survey.
Representatives of 572 hospitals providing maternity care across Canada were sent a questionnaire in the spring and summer of 1993, 523 (91.4%) responded.
Self-reported implementation of policies and practices concerning infant feeding; hospitals were grouped according to location, size (number of live births per year) and university affiliation status.
Although 58.4% (296/507) of the respondents reported that their hospital had a written policy on breast-feeding, only 4.6% (21/454) reported having one that complied with all of the WHO/UNICEF steps surveyed. This figure dropped to 1.3% (6/453) when compliance with the WHO code (distribution of free samples of formula to formula-feeding and breast-feeding mothers) was added. Hospitals in Quebec and the Prairie provinces were significantly more likely than those in Ontario to give free samples of formula to both breast-feeding (OR 2.39 [95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.39 to 4.09] and 20.22 [95% Cl 9.27 to 44.33] respectively) and formula-feeding mothers (OR 1.82 [95% Cl 1.07 to 3.11] and 8.03 [95% Cl 3.29 to 19.6] respectively), after adjustment for hospital size and university affiliation status.
There are considerable variations in the implementation of individual WHO steps and provisions of the WHO code according to hospital location, size and university affiliation status. Very few Canadian hospitals meet all of the criteria that would enable them to be considered "baby friendly" according to the WHO/UNICEF definition.
The success of efforts to prevent continued transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to increase compliance with HIV prophylactic interventions among homosexual and bisexual men will depend in part on health care professionals' understanding of and ability to establish linkages with these men. In order to recruit men into a research project and an educational program, staff at the Pitt Men's Study, an epidemiological investigation of HIV infection, developed a process described here as "brokering," which was based on community organizing and marketing principles. Brokering is a dynamic process by which researchers and public health professionals exchange goods and services with formal and informal leaders of the gay community in order to establish strong, long-term linkages. To date, this process yielded 2,989 homosexual and bisexual recruits into the study, which began in 1983. After 8 years, 79% of those still alive continue to return for follow-up. While recruitment techniques will need to vary from city to city, the importance of establishing linkages with the local indigenous leadership remains of major importance.