While a number of studies have documented higher period prevalence rates of depression among single as compared to married mothers, all of the data have been based upon community surveys of mental illness. In Canada, all of the published work comes from Ontario. As a result, we do not know whether these results hold true for other regions of the country. Using a nationally representative sample, we find, consistent with previous work, that single mothers have almost double the 12-month prevalence rates of married mothers (15.4% versus 6.8%). As well, there are no significant differences in rates of depression between single and married mothers by region/province of the country. Our findings are compared with other epidemiologic data on the mental health of single mothers from Ontario.
When estimating population level changes in health indicators, the declining response rate, especially if also the characteristics of non-respondents are changing may bias the outcome. There is evidence that survey response rates are declining in many countries. It is also known that respondents and non-respondents differ in their socio-economic and demographic status as well as in their health and health behaviours. There is no information about the changes in the differences between respondents and non-respondents over time. Our purpose was to investigate the changes over time in the differences between respondents and non-respondents in respect to their sex, age, marital status and educational level. The data from the Finnish Adult Health Behaviour Survey (1978-2002) was used. The response rate declined over the past 25 years for both men and women in all age groups. The decline was faster among men than women, and also faster in younger age groups than older age groups. There is a marked difference in the response rate between married and non-married persons but it did not change over time. Also the response rate between different educational levels differed for both men and women, and this difference increased over the years. The declining response rate and at the same time occurring change in the non-respondent characteristics will decrease the representativeness of the results, limit the comparability of the results with other surveys, increase the bias of the trend estimates and limit the comparability of the results between population groups.
To investigate the contraception and sexual health-related awareness, attitudes, and practices of a representative sample of Canadian women of childbearing age.
A self-report survey was mailed to a national sample of 3345 women, aged 15 to 44 years, who were members of a pre-recruited market research panel. Survey questions and methodology were similar to 3 previous Canadian Contraception Studies, allowing for description of current patterns of behaviours and beliefs and comparison of trends over time.
Of 3345 women contacted, 1582 returned completed surveys, for a response rate of 47.3%. Responses were weighted to represent Canadian women by region, age, and marital status on the basis of current census data. Eighty-six percent of women sampled had ever had sexual intercourse and 78% were currently sexually active. Women's familiarity with oral contraceptives and condoms as methods of contraception was high (96% and 93%, respectively), but familiarity with other methods was much lower (sterilization, 62%; withdrawal, 59%; the morning-after pill, 57%; intrauterine devices, 50%; depot [injectable] medroxyprogesterone acetate, 38%). A very favourable opinion was held by 63% of respondents concerning oral contraceptives, by 38% concerning condoms, and by 39% and 28% concerning male and female sterilization, respectively. Among respondents who have ever had sexual intercourse, the most frequently used current methods were oral contraceptives (32%), condoms (21%), male sterilization (15%), female sterilization (8%), and withdrawal (6%). Nine percent of these respondents reported using no method of contraception at all. The currently reported rate of female sterilization is the lowest ever recorded in Canada. Survey results show that adherence to contraceptive methods is a challenge for many women and their partners, and that risk of sexually transmitted disease is an ongoing concern.
This study provides a wide-ranging examination of contraception awareness, beliefs, and use among Canadian women that may provide guidance for clinical and public health practice. Part 1 of this report describes the methodology of the 2002 Canadian Contraception Study and the overall results of this study; Part 2 considers results pertaining specifically to adolescent women and women in their later reproductive years, reports on indicators of women's sexual function and reproductive health history, describes approaches to addressing challenges in contraception counselling, and presents data concerning trends in Canadian women's awareness and use of contraception over the past 2 decades.
We aimed to investigate the prevalence rate of abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial, neglect) of older persons (AO) in seven cities from seven countries in Europe (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden), and to assess factors potentially associated with AO.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 (n = 4,467, aged 60-84). Potentially associated factors were grouped into domains (domain 1: age, gender, migration history; domain 2: education, occupation; domain 3: marital status, living situation; domain 4: habitation, income, financial strain). We calculated odds ratios (OR) with their respective 95 % confidence intervals (CI).
Psychological AO was the most common form of AO, ranging from 10.4 % (95 % CI 8.1-13.0) in Italy to 29.7 % (95 % CI 26.2-33.5) in Sweden. Second most common form was financial AO, ranging from 1.8 % (95 % CI 0.9-3.2) in Sweden to 7.8 % (95 % CI 5.8-10.1) in Portugal. Less common was physical AO, ranging from 1.0 % (95 % CI 0.4-2.1) in Italy to 4.0 % (95 % CI 2.6-5.8 %) in Sweden. Sexual AO was least common, ranging from 0.3 (95 % CI 0.0-1.1) in Italy and Spain to 1.5 % (95 % CI 0.7-2.8) in Greece. Being from Germany (AOR 3.25, 95 % CI 2.34-4.51), Sweden (OR 3.16, 95 % CI 2.28-4.39) or Lithuania (AOR 2.45, 95 % CI 1.75-3.43) was associated with increased prevalence rates of AO.
Country of residence of older people is independent from the four assessed domains associated with AO. Life course perspectives on AO are highly needed to get better insight, and to develop and implement prevention strategies targeted at decreasing prevalence rates of AO.
The James iCAPTURE Centre for Cardiovascular and pulmonary Research, Heart and Lung Institute, St Paul's Hospital, Providence Healthcare, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is the leading reason for hospitalization in Canada and a significant financial burden on hospital resources. Identifying factors that influence the time a patient spends in the hospital and readmission rates will allow for better use of scarce hospital resources.
To determine the factors that influence length of stay (LOS) in the hospital and readmission for patients with AECOPD in an inner-city hospital.
Using the Providence Health Records, a retrospective review of patients admitted to St Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) during the winter of 2006 to 2007 (six months) with a diagnosis of AECOPD, was conducted. Exacerbations were classified according to Anthonisen criteria to determine the severity of exacerbation on admission. Severity of COPD was scored using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. For comparative analysis, severity of disease (GOLD criteria), age, sex and smoking history were matched.
Of 109 admissions reviewed, 66 were single admissions (61%) and 43 were readmissions (39%). The number of readmissions ranged from two to nine (mean of 3.3 readmissions). More than 85% of admissions had the severity of COPD equal to or greater than GOLD stage 3. The significant indicators for readmission were GOLD status (P
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This study aimed to determine the distributions of the age at onset (AAO) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using admixture analysis and to determine the clinical differences between subgroups with different AAO.
Participants were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to obtain clinical data. Admixture analysis was performed using the STATA module DENORMIX to identify subgroups characterized by differences in AAO.
The best fit model was the three-component model with the following means, standard deviations and proportions: 14.60 (3.75) years (49.1%), 29.15 (6.75) years (34.1%) and 46.96 (6.06) years (16.8%) (?(2)=3.64, 2 df, P=.162). The three subgroups were divided by AAO of 22 and 40. After controlling for duration of illness, there were no significant differences between the three AAO subgroups in terms of gender and psychiatric family history. However, the early-onset subgroup was significantly more likely to report being single compared to the intermediate- and late-onset groups. The proportion of individuals meeting criteria for lifetime comorbid panic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder did not differ significantly between the AAO groups. However, the early-onset group reported a higher incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (5.1% vs. 1.7% and 1.2%, P=.086), although this was not statistically significant.
Our study identified three characteristically different AAO subgroups in individuals suffering from MDD. The subgroups may reflect different underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved.
Cites: J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994 Nov-Dec;33(9):1289-987995795
The objective was to assess the presence of different subgroups, via age-at-onset (AAO) analysis, in a schizophrenia population consecutively recruited through an Early Psychosis Service in London, Canada.
Admixture analysis was applied in order to identify a model of separate normal distribution of AAO characterized by different means, variances and population proportions to allow for evaluation of different subgroups in a sample of 187 unrelated patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The best-fitting model suggested three subgroups with means and standard deviations of 16.8 ± 1.9, 22.3 ± 2.1 and 32.7 ± 5.9 years comprising 41%, 30% and 29% of the schizophrenia sample, respectively. These three subgroups were categorized as early, intermediate and late onset with cutoffs determined by admixture analysis to be 19 and 26 years of age, respectively. In our investigation, the definition of early-onset schizophrenia is the main outcome. We considered the clinical variables mainly related to the heritability and neurobiology of schizophrenia. Single status was strongly associated with early onset (P
This paper discusses a 1989 study of new admissions to 22 adult day care centres in British Columbia and compares it to similar studies in the U.S. The B.C. study investigated clients' characteristics, reasons for referral to the centres, and why some referrals did not attend. Of the new admissions, 63% were female and 30% lived alone. Compared to those in American studies, B.C. clients were older and more likely to live with a spouse. The primary medical conditions of B.C. clients were related to diseases of the circulatory system. As for daily activities, 58% could not bathe without supervision and 43% required assistance with dressing. Some 37% were unable to prepare their own meals; 31% needed help with housekeeping and 62% with shopping. The proportion of clients with mental diseases (38%) was similar to that in American adult day care centres. The three most common reasons for referring clients to adult day care centres were: to assist those who were socially isolated; to give family caregivers some respite; and to give clients emotional help. Perceptions varied as to why referred clients did not attend: for continuing care staff there were psychosocial factors; for adult day care staff it was related to characteristics of the service delivery system; and clients themselves cited functional, physical and operational factors (e.g., problems related to hearing and vision, transportation or physical barriers).
AIMS: This study examined whether adverse social factors are associated with an increased rate of biological ageing in middle-aged subjects. METHODS: The authors investigated five markers of biological ageing in 690 subjects followed for five years in Ebeltoft, Denmark. Mean age at baseline was 40 years (range 30-50 years). These markers included repeated measures of pulse pressure, lung function, hearing, physical work capacity and a cardiovascular risk score. A zeta-score was calculated based on a factor analysis of the five markers used. The relative biological age was finally calculated in relation to chronological age in subgroups of different social class (occupation, educational level) and marital status, at baseline and after follow-up. RESULTS: Men and women from a higher social class appeared to be biologically younger than corresponding subjects from a lower social class (p
The research presents the authors' analysis of epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a big industrial city of Middle Volga. 2063 persons (903 men and 1160 women) were examined in four age groups (30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60 years and upward) in Kirovskiy and Krasnoglinskiy districts of Samara. COPD was found out in 14,49% among 2063 examined people (30-39 years--10.76%, 40-49 years--10.89%, 50-59 years--15.88%, 60 years and upward--21.30%). COPD was found out in 18.72% among 903 examined men and in 11.21% among 1160 examined women. The data proved that leading risk factors of COPD are male sex, age, smoking, ecology, genetic predisposition, level of the education, marriage status.