The objective was to assess the presence of different subgroups, via age-at-onset (AAO) analysis, in a schizophrenia population consecutively recruited through an Early Psychosis Service in London, Canada.
Admixture analysis was applied in order to identify a model of separate normal distribution of AAO characterized by different means, variances and population proportions to allow for evaluation of different subgroups in a sample of 187 unrelated patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The best-fitting model suggested three subgroups with means and standard deviations of 16.8 ± 1.9, 22.3 ± 2.1 and 32.7 ± 5.9 years comprising 41%, 30% and 29% of the schizophrenia sample, respectively. These three subgroups were categorized as early, intermediate and late onset with cutoffs determined by admixture analysis to be 19 and 26 years of age, respectively. In our investigation, the definition of early-onset schizophrenia is the main outcome. We considered the clinical variables mainly related to the heritability and neurobiology of schizophrenia. Single status was strongly associated with early onset (P
To evaluate whether mid-life marital status is related to cognitive function in later life.
Prospective population based study with an average follow-up of 21 years.
Kuopio and Joensuu regions in eastern Finland.
Participants were derived from random, population based samples previously investigated in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987; 1449 individuals (73%), aged 65-79, underwent re-examination in 1998.
Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.
People cohabiting with a partner in mid-life (mean age 50.4) were less likely than all other categories (single, separated, or widowed) to show cognitive impairment later in life at ages 65-79. Those widowed or divorced in mid-life and still so at follow-up had three times the risk compared with married or cohabiting people. Those widowed both at mid-life and later life had an odds ratio of 7.67 (1.6 to 40.0) for Alzheimer's disease compared with married or cohabiting people. The highest increased risk for Alzheimer's disease was in carriers of the apolipoprotein E e4 allele who lost their partner before mid-life and were still widowed or divorced at follow-up. The progressive entering of several adjustment variables from mid-life did not alter these associations.
Living in a relationship with a partner might imply cognitive and social challenges that have a protective effect against cognitive impairment later in life, consistent with the brain reserve hypothesis. The specific increased risk for widowed and divorced people compared with single people indicates that other factors are needed to explain parts of the results. A sociogenetic disease model might explain the dramatic increase in risk of Alzheimer's disease for widowed apolipoprotein E e4 carriers.
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2489-9012815133
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2508-1612815136
Impaired bonding with the infant is associated with maternal postpartum depression but has not been investigated extensively in fathers. The primary study aim was to evaluate associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and impaired bonding with their infant. A secondary aim was to determine the associations between parents' marital problems and impaired bonding with the infant. The study is part of a population-based cohort project (UPPSAT) in Uppsala, Sweden. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at 6 months postpartum were completed by 727 couples. The prevalence of impaired bonding was highest among couples in which both spouses had depressive symptoms. Impaired bonding was associated with higher EPDS scores in both mothers and fathers, as well as with experiencing a deteriorated marital relationship. The association between maternal and paternal impaired bonding and the mothers' and fathers' EPDS scores remained significant even after adjustment for relevant confounding factors. Depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum are associated with impaired bonding with the infant at 6 months postpartum for both mothers and fathers. It is critical to screen for and prevent depressive symptoms in both parents during early parenthood.
In a follow-up study of 1265 women and men aged 50, 60 and 70 years, we analysed how mortality was associated with cohabitation status (living alone/not living alone), living with/without a partner, and marital status respectively. Data originate from a longitudinal questionnaire study of a random sample of people born in 1920, 1930 and 1940 with baseline in 1990. Survival time for all individuals were established during the next 8 years until May 1998. Multivariate Cox analysis stratified by age and gender showed that individuals living alone experienced a significantly increased mortality compared to individuals living with somebody HR = 1.42(1.04-1.95) adjusted for functional ability, self-rated health, having children, smoking, diet and physical activity. Similar analyses were performed for the variable living with/without a partner HR = 1.38(1.01-1.88) and marital status HR = 1.25(0.93-1.69), adjusted for the same covariates. Inclusion of the health behaviour variables--smoking, diet and physical activity--one by one to a model with functional ability, self-rated health and one of the three determinants (cohabitation status, living with/without partner, marital status) showed no effect on the association with mortality. Hereby, we found no evidence of an indirect effect of health behaviours on the association between living arrangements and mortality. In contrast to many previous studies, we found no significant gender and age differences in the association between living arrangement and mortality. We suggest that in future studies of social relations and mortality, cohabitation status is considered to replace marital status as this variable may account for more of the variation in mortality.
We estimated the degree to which the relationship between socio-economic position (SEP) and alcohol-related disorders is attenuated after adjustment for levels and patterns of drinking, behavioural, material and social factors.
A longitudinal cohort study with baseline in 2002, with linkage to register data on patient care and deaths in 2002-11 to yield the outcome measures.
Stockholm County, Sweden.
Respondents to baseline survey aged 25-64 (n = 17?440) with information on all studied covariates.
Occupational class was the studied SEP indicator and a combined measure of volume of weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of heavy episodic drinking, smoking, employment status, income, social support, marital status and education, all at baseline, were the studied covariates. Alcohol-related disorders (n = 388) were indicated by first register entries on alcohol-related medical care or death during the follow-up.
Unskilled workers had an approximately four times greater risk of alcohol-related disorders than higher non-manual employees, hazard ratio (HR) = 4.08 (2.78, 5.98). After adjustment for alcohol use, the SEP difference in risk for alcohol-related harm fell by a fourth for the same group, HR = 2.91 (1.96, 4.33). The difference was reduced further when behavioural factors and material factors were taken into account, HR = 2.09 (1.34, 3.26), whereas adjusting for social factors and attained education resulted in smaller reductions.
Socio-economic differences in alcohol use explain one fourth of the socio-economic position differences in alcohol-related disorders in Stockholm, Sweden. Hazardous alcohol use and other behavioural, material and social factors together explain nearly 60% of the socio-economic position differences in alcohol-related disorders.
We examined the incremental influence on survival of neighbourhood material and social deprivation while accounting for individual level socioeconomic status in a large population-based cohort of Canadians.
More than 500,000 adults were followed for 22 years between 1982 and 2004. Tax records provided information on sex, income, marital status and postal code while a linkage was used to determine vital status. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for quintiles of neighbourhood material and social deprivation.
There were 180,000 deaths over the follow-up period. In unadjusted analyses, those living in the most materially deprived neighbourhoods had elevated risks of mortality (HR(males) 1.37, 95% CI: 1.33-1.41; HR(females) 1.20, 95% CI: 1.16-1.24) when compared with those living in the least deprived neighbourhoods. Mortality risk was also elevated for those living in socially deprived neighbourhoods (HR(males) 1.15, CI: 1.12-1.18; HR(females) 1.15, CI: 1.12-1.19). Mortality risk associated with material deprivation remained elevated in models that adjusted for individual factors (HR(males) 1.20, CI: 1.17-1.24; HR(females) 1.16, CI: 1.13-1.20) and this was also the case for social deprivation (HR(males) 1.12, CI: 1.09-1.15; HR(females) 1.09, CI: 1.05-1.12). Immigrant neighbourhoods were protective of mortality risk for both sexes. Being poor and living in the most socially advantageous neighbourhoods translated into a survival gap of 10% over those in the most socially deprived neighbourhoods. The gap for material neighbourhood deprivation was 7%.
Living in socially and materially deprived Canadian neighbourhoods was associated with elevated mortality risk while we noted a "healthy immigrant neighbourhood effect". For those with low family incomes, living in socially and materially deprived areas negatively affected survival beyond their individual circumstances.
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To investigate annual prevalence of disability pension (DP) from 1992 to 2007 and associations with sociodemographic factors in 1992.
All twins born between 1928 and 1958 were identified from the Swedish Twin Registry and linked to national records on DP. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were applied.
The annual prevalence of DP was 10.7% (9.6% to 11.3%). High age (odds ratio [OR] 9.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.43 to 9.98), low education (OR 4.84; 95% CI 4.31 to 5.42), and being unmarried (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.22 to 2.50) were associated with DP. The associations remained after adjusting for familial factors.
The fact that the associations remained after control for familial factors indicates that factors not shared by family members, such as choices in adulthood, are of relevance for the associations found.
This paper investigates the relationship between early life biological and social factors, partnership history, and mortality risk. Mortality risks for Swedish men and women over age 50 in the Uppsala Birth Cohort born 1915-1929 were estimated using survival analysis. Relative mortality risk was evaluated through nested multiplicative Gompertz models for 4348 men and 3331 women, followed from age 50 to the end of 2010. Being born to an unmarried mother was associated with higher mortality risk in later life for men and women, and relative to married individuals, being unmarried after age 50 was associated with elevated mortality risk. Single women and divorced men were the highest risk groups, and women were negatively impacted by a previous divorce or widowhood, while men were not. Both genders showed direct effects of early life variables on later life mortality and were vulnerable if unmarried in later life. However, in this study, previous marital disruptions appeared to have more (negative) meaning in the long-term for women.
This study relates certain family network variables (martial status and number of children) to chances of survival. Through multivariate analysis, survival is also related to social class, social mobility, migration and local environment, and legitimacy of birth. All persons in a local birth cohort born in the years 1902 and 1903 were followed in population records from birth until eighty years of age. The group comprised 487 individuals with a dropout rate of 4 percent. Univariate survival analysis between twenty to eighty years of age showed widows and also divorced women to have a significantly higher survival than those still married and never married. Never married men and women had the lowest survival rates. The number of children was not associated with survival for neither men nor women when controlled for marital status. Multiple regression survival analysis showed different patterns for males and females. The risk of not surviving to eighty years of age for men resulted from a combination of being single, downward social mobility, a father in the manual working class group and few children, with being single as the strongest predictor. For women the strongest predictor for death before eighty was the category single and/or married (as opposed to earlier married). The combination of being single/married, high migration, earlier life mainly in rural areas, and having few children were predictors in the model of death before eighty. Thus, for both men and women marital status was the strongest predictor for survival but in different ways.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the functional capacity and self-rated health of a large cohort of nonagenarians. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of all Danes born in 1905 (92-93 years of age), carried out August to October 1998. SETTING: Participants' homes. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand two hundred and sixty-two nonagenarians, corresponding to a participation rate of 63% (of these, 20% participated by proxy). MEASUREMENTS: Activities of daily living (ADLs) and self-rated health were assessed by interview. Five items from Katz's ADLs (bathing, dressing, transfer, toileting, and eating) were used to construct a three-level five-item ADL scale (not disabled (no disabilities), moderately disabled (1-2 disabilities), severely disabled (3-5 disabilities)). From responses to a more extensive list of questions on ADLs (26 items), we identified scales of strength and agility by means of factor analysis. Furthermore, a 26-item ADL scale was made. Physical performance tests (chair stand, timed walk, lifting a 2.7 kg box, maximum grip-strength, and flexibility tests) were performed among nonproxy responders. RESULTS: According to the five-item ADL scale, 50% of the men and 41% of the women were categorized as not disabled, while 19% and 22%, respectively, were categorized as severely disabled. The five-item ADL scale correlated highly with the 26-item ADL scale (r = 0.83). The ADL scales showed moderate-to-good correlation with each other (r = 0.74-0.83), and with the physical performance tests (r = 0.31-0.58). Only 3.7% of the women and 6.3% of the men walked (normal pace) with a speed of at least 1 meter per second, which is the minimum walking speed required to cross signaled intersections in Denmark. A total of 56% considered their health to be excellent or good. Of the participants, 74% were always or almost always satisfied with their lives, even though only 45% reported that they "felt well enough to do what they wanted." The analyses showed that no single ADL item seemed to be of particular importance for how the participants rated their health. CONCLUSION: The Danish 1905 cohort survey is the largest and the only nationwide survey of a whole birth-cohort of nonagenarians. A total of 2,262 fairly nonselected nonagenarians participated. The level of both self-reported disability and functional limitations measured by physical performance tests among nonagenarians was high. Despite their lower mortality, women were more disabled than men and did not perform as well as men in the physical performance tests. Nevertheless, the majority of the participants considered their health to be good and were satisfied with their lives.