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Assessing the Vulnerability of Marine Mammal Subsistence Species in the Bering Sea to Climate Change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297000
Source
University of Washington. School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, College of the Environment.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2017
Assessing the Vulnerability of Marine Mammal Subsistence Species in the Bering Sea to Climate Change Grace A. Ferrara A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Marine Affairs University of Washington
  1 document  
Author
Ferrara, Grace A.
Source
University of Washington. School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, College of the Environment.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1604269
Keywords
Alaska
Bering Sea
Marine mammals
Climate change
Abstract
The Bering Sea is a highly productive region of the Pacific Arctic. Native Alaskan communities rely heavily on the marine resources of the Bering Sea for survival. The timing of the formation and thaw of sea ice each year has a significant impact on the structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. In its current state, the northern Bering Sea is a benthic-dominated ecosystem that supports many species of marine invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals. Eight of these mammal species are relied on heavily by Native Alaskans for subsistence. However, this region is already experiencing the effects of climate change in ways that threaten the persistence of these communities as a result of changes in the timing of sea ice advance and retreat. As these changes progress, understanding the ways in which the ecosystem is vulnerable to climate change will be essential for resource managers and local communities to prepare to adapt. Climate change vulnerability analyses (CCVAs) provide a framework for quantifying vulnerability that can be useful for developing, implementing, and monitoring management solutions to reduce vulnerability. This study uses a CCVA to quantify the vulnerability of eight species of marine mammals in the Bering Sea as a first step in understanding how the communities that rely on them for subsistence are also vulnerable. Although some species are more vulnerable than others, this method allows managers to pinpoint sources of vulnerability for each one to develop strategies for reducing their vulnerability.
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Ferrara_washington_0250O_17629.pdf

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Cadmium contamination in Alaska Native food chain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300635
Source
Rural Alaska Community Action Program.
Publication Type
Report
Author
Hild, Carl M.
Source
Rural Alaska Community Action Program.
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Natives
Traditional food
Cadmium
Marine mammals
Kidneys
Notes
Available upon request at the Alaska Medical Library, located in UAA/APU Consortium Library. Ask for accession no. 300635.
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Dietary selenium intake in Greenland related to mercury exposure

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76553
Source
Pages 266-267 in R. Fortuine, ed. Circumpolar Health 84. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, 6th, Anchorage, 13-18 May, 1984. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 1985.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1985
concentrations were found to be closely related to the amount eaten per day of meat from marine mammals (4-6). This is illus- trated for mercury in Figure 1, where the arithmetic means of blood mercury concentra- tions found in various geographical regions are plotted against the amount of meat available
  1 document  
Author
Hansen, J. C.
Author Affiliation
Institute of Hygiene, Denmark
Source
Pages 266-267 in R. Fortuine, ed. Circumpolar Health 84. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, 6th, Anchorage, 13-18 May, 1984. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 1985.
Date
1985
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Angmagssalik
Eskimo diet
Fish
Marine mammals
Mercury
Reindeer
Selenium
Thule
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Environmenal [sic] pollution and severe winter hydrological hazard and their effect on Greenland seal White Sea population: results of comprehensive study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296417
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
pollutants was fixed. Concerning to the items involved to our study, White Sea and contiguous waters is the areal space for many marine mammals (seals, belukhas, whales, walruses, etc.). Recession a number of mammals pressed to develop a new instrumental technologies for control of sea pollution and
  1 document  

Environmental contamination of the Yupik people of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101222
Source
Journal of Indigenous Research. 2011 Mar;1(1)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
  1 website  
Author
Carpenter, DO
Miller, PK
Author Affiliation
University at Albany, Carpent@uamail.albany.edu
Alaska Community Action on Toxics, Docmorse@aol.com
Source
Journal of Indigenous Research. 2011 Mar;1(1)
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Blood samples
Cancer
Chlorinated pesticides
DDE
DDT
Diet
Fat-soluble contaminants
Marine mammal blubber
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
St. Lawrence Island
Traditional foods
Yupik
Abstract
The Arctic is contaminated with persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals that originate primarily from industrial areas in temperate climates.
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Eskimo Walrus Commission's 1981 research report: The harvest and use of marine mammals in fifteen Eskimo communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297017
Source
Prepared for The Eskimo Walrus Commission and The Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Technical paper number 56.
Publication Type
Report
Date
May 1982
ESKIMO WALRUS COMMISSION'S 1981 RESEARCH REPORT: THE HARVEST AND USE OF MARINE MAMMALS IN FIFTEEN ESKIMO COMMUNITIES by George K. Sherrod Technical Paper Number 56 Prepared for The Eskimo Walrus Commission And The Division of Subsistence Alaska Department of Fish and Game Subsistence
  1 document  
Author
Sherrod, George K.
Source
Prepared for The Eskimo Walrus Commission and The Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Technical paper number 56.
Date
May 1982
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
10231548
Keywords
Alaska
Marine mammals
Harvest
Utilization
Abstract
This report is a summary and an initial analysis of the information derived from the 1981 subsistence research project conducted by research staff of the Eskimo Walrus Commission (EWC). During the fall and winter of 1980 and the spring of 1981, a marine mammal subsistence harvest and utilization survey was conducted in fifteen communities of the Bering Strait and Norton Sound areas. The primary research tool employed in conducting the survey was a questionnaire developed by the staff with technical direction and assistance from Linda J. Ellanna. The survey was administered to a sample of households in all fifteen villages and basic demographic information was gathered for purposes of correlation to the marine mammal harvest and utilization data.
The purpose of the study was to provide a primary data base on the contemporary role of marine mammals in the subsistence-based socioeconomic systems of the study communities. This data base will contribute a portion of the information required to address marine mammal management questions pertaining to subsistence. Further, the findings of this study will guide the development of further research questions and projects.
The descriptive analyses of the data is presented in a tabular format. The information is arranged in a manner which exhibits both household and community harvest and utilization characteristics. Additionally the data is displayed in a format which allows further analyses by the reader.
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Indigenous People’s Council for Marine Mammals (IPCoMM)

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301412
Publication Type
Website
  1 website  
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Website
Keywords
Alaska
Marine mammals
Conservation
Protection
Management
Traditional knowledge
Subsistence
Abstract
IPCoMM is a coalition of Tribal marine mammal commissions, councils and other Native organizations formed for the purpose of identifying and addressing marine mammal issues of common concern. Our vision is to promote the wise use of renewable natural resources by indigenous peoples.
IPCoMM was formally organized in Anchorage, Alaska in January 1992 following a Marine Mammal Conference in December 1991 sponsored by the Rural Alaska Community Action Program, Inc. Some identified long-term marine mammal issues at that time were: (1) MMPA reauthorization; (2) Co-management; and (3) Involving traditional knowledge in the subsistence issue
Eighteen marine mammals commissions, councils and other Alaska Native organizations, plus one observer, are members of IPCoMM. IPCoMM plans meetings twice a year during which members discuss issues of common concern regarding marine mammal conservation and subsistence.
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Organochlorine and metal contaminants in baleen whales: a review and evaluation of conservation implications

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300787
Source
Science of the Total Environment Vol 154, Issues 2-3, pp 179-200
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sept 1994
Author
T J O'Shea
R L Brownell, Jr
Source
Science of the Total Environment Vol 154, Issues 2-3, pp 179-200
Date
Sept 1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Organochlorines
Metals
PCBs
Whales
Marine mammals
Abstract
The literature on organochlorine and metal contaminants in tissues of baleen whales includes data for approximately 1000 individuals in 10 species from various oceans of the world. Concentrations of these contaminants in tissues of baleen whales are low. Sources of variation in organochlorine concentrations in whales include age, sex, region of exposure, and feeding habits. Concentrations of SDDT and PCBs in baleen whales appear higher in the northern hemisphere than in the southern oceans, perhaps due to greater contamination of northern ecosystem and a higher incidence of fish in the diet. However, maximum concentrations are generally lower in tissues of baleen whales than in other marine mammal species, both on global and local scales. This is predictable based on the general distribution, habitats and trophic levels of baleen whales. We reviewed laboratory studies on the effects of selected organochlorine contaminants on direct mortality and impaired reproduction in other mammals, and critically examined observations attempting to link organochlorines to reproductive and population effects in marine mammals. There is no firm basis to conclude that the contaminants reviewed herein have affected baleen whale populations. Although more information on contaminants in baleen whales would be of value, as a matter of priority, research and management actions should focus on reducing human-caused mortality and increasing habitat carrying capacity for these species.
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Radionuclide contaminant burdens in Arctic marine mammals harvested during subsistence hunting

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102079
Source
Arctic. 2000 Jun;53(2):174-182
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2000
  1 website  
Author
Cooper, LW
Larsen, IL
O'Hara, TM
Dolvin, S
Woshner, V
Cota, GF
Author Affiliation
Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
Department of Wildlife Management, North Slope Borough, Barrow, Alaska, U.S.A.
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.A.
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, U.S.A.
Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.A.
Source
Arctic. 2000 Jun;53(2):174-182
Date
Jun-2000
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
108mAg
137Cs
Alaska
Canada
Contamination
Marine mammals
North Slope Borough
Radioactivity
Radionuclides
Resolute region
Subsistence hunting
Abstract
We conducted gamma spectrometric analyses on more than 200 arctic marine mammal tissue samples. These samples were primarily provided by subsistence hunters from northern Alaska, with a smaller number of samples from the Resolute region in Canada. The majority of samples (>90%) had detectable levels of the anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs, with a mean level observed in all samples of 0.67 Bq kg-1 dry weight ± 0.81 (SD). Converted to wet weight, the mean was 0.21 Bq kg-1 ± 0.19 SD. The median activity observed was 0.45 Bq kg-1 dry weight (0.18 Bq kg-1 wet weight) with a range from detection limits to 6.7 Bq kg-1 dry weight (1.1 Bq kg-1 wet weight). These findings confirm expectations that current anthropogenic gamma emitter burdens in marine mammals used in the North American Arctic as subsistence food resources are well below activities that would normally merit public health concern (~1000 Bq kg-1 wet weight). Some differences among species and tissues were observed. Beluga tissues had slightly higher mean burdens of 137Cs overall, and epidermis and muscle tissues in bowhead and beluga whales typically had higher burdens than other tissues analyzed. Low levels of the neutron activation product 108mAg (half-life 418 yr.), probably bioaccumulated from bomb fallout sources, were observed in 16 of 17 beluga livers analyzed, but were not found in any other tissues of beluga or in any other species sampled. A subset of 39 samples of various tissues was analyzed for the alpha and beta emitters 239,240Pu and 90Sr. Plutonium levels were near the threshold of detectability (~0.1 Bq kg-1 dry weight) in 6 of the 39 samples; all other samples had no detectable plutonium. A detectable level of 90Sr (10.3 ± 1.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight) was observed in only one of the 39 samples analyzed, a bowhead epidermis sample. Although the accumulation of 108mAg has not been previously reported in any marine mammal livers, all of our analytical measurements indicate that only very low levels of anthropogenic radioactivity are associated with marine mammals harvested and consumed in the North American Arctic.
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Review of Co-management Efforts in Alaska: Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, 6–8 February 2008, Anchorage, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297014
Source
Marine Mammal Commission. vi, 62 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2008
Marine Mammal Commission 4340 East-West Highway, Room 700 Bethesda, Maryland 20814 www.mmc.gov Report of the Marine Mammal Commission Review of Co-management Efforts in Alaska 6–8 February 2008 Anchorage, Alaska Report of the Marine Mammal Commission Review of Co-management Efforts in
  1 document  
Source
Marine Mammal Commission. vi, 62 p.
Date
2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
641735
Keywords
Alaska
Marine mammals
Subsistence
Education
Climate change
Documents

Marine-Mammal-Commission-Review-of-Co-Management-Efforts-in-Alaska.pdf

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15 records – page 1 of 2.