The association between high sensation-seeking, close friends' drug use and low parental monitoring with ecstasy (MDMA) use in adolescence was examined in a sample of US household-dwelling adolescents aged 12-18 years (N=5049). We also tested whether associations were of stronger magnitude than associations between these correlates and marijuana or alcohol/tobacco use in adolescence. Data from Round 2 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) Restricted Use Files (RUF) was analyzed via Jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. High sensation-seekers were more likely to be ecstasy, marijuana, and alcohol/tobacco users, respectively, as compared to low sensation-seekers. High sensation-seeking and close friends' drug use were more strongly associated with ecstasy as compared to marijuana and alcohol/tobacco use. Low parental monitoring was associated with marijuana use and alcohol/tobacco use and there was a trend for it to be associated with ecstasy use. Ecstasy use is strongly associated with peer drug use and more modestly associated with high sensation-seeking. School prevention programs should target high-sensation-seeking adolescents and also encourage them to affiliate with non-drug using peers.
The adolescent marijuana literature is reviewed. Studies show that the prevalence of marijuana use is generally quite low in elementary schools. In junior and senior high samples, findings vary greatly from place to place. The prevalence of use increased dramatically during the 1970s although the use patterns may have peaked already in some areas. The use of marijuana increases with age, but some evidence suggests that a slight drop-off in use occurs near the end of high school. Female use seems to be increasing more than male use. Use seems to be somewhat more prevalent in middle- and upper-middle-class homes and in broken homes. Mixed support has been found for the hypothesis that marijuana users have parents that are more permissive. Parents of marijuana users are generally characterized as being less warm and supportive, and more inclined toward the use of drugs themselves. Peer and sibling use of marijuana seem to be particularly important predictors of adolescent marijuana use. Findings on personality characteristics of marijuana users are not extensive and are somewhat contradictory. There is some evidence that users tend to be somewhat alienated, external in their locus of control, and possibly higher on anxiety. Users are also characterized by a higher value on independence vs achievement and more positive attitudes toward marijuana use. Behavioral correlates of marijuana use include greater use of alcohol and other drugs, and poorer school performance.
To examine differences in tobacco use and dependence between adolescents who are and are not marijuana users.
Cross-sectional analysis of existing survey data.
Data were obtained from 7440 adolescents who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II (BCYSOSH-II), a school based survey conducted in 2004.
Responses to demographic, current smoking, alcohol use, self-defined tobacco and marijuana use status questions, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, modified-Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (M-FTQ), and the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS) were obtained.
Marijuana users were 5.9 times more likely to be current tobacco smokers and reported higher levels of perceived addiction to tobacco as compared with marijuana non-users. After controlling for demographics, life-time tobacco use, and alcohol use, marijuana use was associated with the nicotine dependent and sensory dimensions of tobacco dependence.
Adolescents who concurrently use tobacco and marijuana may be more tobacco dependent than are marijuana non-users. Concurrent use of marijuana may be a factor associated with tobacco dependence among a sub-group of concomitant drug-using adolescents.
The aim of this study was to test the validity of the Finnish version of the Internet Addiction Test and the correlates of harmful use of the Internet.
One thousand eight hundred and twenty-five students (45.5% men and 54.5% women, mean age 24.7 years, S.D.=5.7) filled in a web-based questionnaire including IAT, reasons for use of the Internet, distress, social support, and substance use.
Men had a statistically significantly higher mean score on the IAT than women. Subjects with self-reported use of cannabis had higher mean score on the IAT compared to non-users (39.5 [11.3] vs 35.8 [10.8]). The total IAT score was associated with "adult entertainment" (OR=1.07, 95%CI: 1.06-1.08, P
To investigate associations between cannabis use and subsequent receipt of social welfare assistance.
The Young in Norway Longitudinal Study. A population-based Norwegian sample (n = 2606) was followed-up from adolescence to late 20s. Self-report data were merged with data from national registers.
Data were extracted on the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and other illegal substances. Information was also retrieved on socio-demographic and family factors, academic achievement, conduct problems and mental health. National registers provided data on social welfare assistance, educational level and crime statistics.
We observed prospective bivariate associations between increasing levels of cannabis use and subsequent social welfare assistance (P
The objective of this study was to test hypotheses on causality and selection regarding associations between cannabis use and deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents. School surveys were conducted among 9,800 adolescents in England and Norway applying identical measures on deliberate self-harm, suicidal thoughts, cannabis use, and various potential confounders. Cannabis use was more prevalent in England than in Norway. It was associated with DHS, suicidal thoughts and various risk factors for DSH. However, these associations were stronger in Norway than in England. The adjusted associations between cannabis use and suicidal thoughts were non-significant in both countries. The adjusted cannabis-DSH association was non-significant in England but significant in Norway. Elevated risk of DSH in adolescent cannabis users seems to be mainly due to selection mechanisms. Thus the association is not likely to be direct but due to other shared contributory factors.
According to the gateway hypothesis, tobacco use is a gateway of cannabis use. However, there is increasing evidence that cannabis use also predicts the progression of tobacco use (reverse gateway hypothesis). Unfortunately, the importance of cannabis use compared to other predictors of tobacco use is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine which variables, in addition to cannabis use, best predict the onset of daily cigarette smoking in young men.
A total of 5,590 young Swiss men (mean age = 19.4 years, SD = 1.2) provided data on their substance use, socio-demographic background, religion, health, social context, and personality at baseline and after 18 months. We modelled the predictors of progression to daily cigarette smoking using logistic regression analyses (n = 4,230).
In the multivariate overall model, use of cannabis remained among the strongest predictors for the onset of daily cigarette use. Daily cigarette use was also predicted by a lifetime use of at least 50 cigarettes, occasional cigarette use, educational level, religious affiliation, parental situation, peers with psychiatric problems, and sociability.
Our results highlight the relevance of cannabis use compared to other potential predictors of the progression of tobacco use and thereby support the reverse gateway hypothesis.
Cites: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2013 May;39(3):168-7923721532
Does cannabis use have substantial and permanent effects on neuropsychological functioning? Renewed and intense attention to the issue has followed recent research on the Dunedin cohort, which found a positive association between, on the one hand, adolescent-onset cannabis use and dependence and, on the other hand, a decline in IQ from childhood to adulthood [Meier et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(40):E2657-E2664]. The association is given a causal interpretation by the authors, but existing research suggests an alternative confounding model based on time-varying effects of socioeconomic status on IQ. A simulation of the confounding model reproduces the reported associations from the Dunedin cohort, suggesting that the causal effects estimated in Meier et al. are likely to be overestimates, and that the true effect could be zero. Further analyses of the Dunedin cohort are proposed to distinguish between the competing interpretations. Although it would be too strong to say that the results have been discredited, the methodology is flawed and the causal inference drawn from the results premature.
The aim of the study was to investigate which factors are associated with age at onset in bipolar disorder with a specific focus on excessive alcohol and cannabis use, and the sequence of the onsets of excessive substance use and bipolar disorder. We investigated a naturalistic sample of 151 patients with bipolar I and II disorder receiving psychiatric treatment. Whether the presence of excessive substance use prior to bipolar disorder onset or the type of substance used (alcohol or cannabis) was associated with differences in age at onset was investigated using hierarchical and multiple linear regression analyses, adjusting for potential confounders. Patients with excessive alcohol use had a significantly later onset compared with patients with excessive cannabis use. Excessive general substance use prior to bipolar disorder onset was associated with a later onset. However, excessive cannabis use was associated with an earlier onset whether it preceded or followed bipolar disorder onset, also after adjusting for possible confounders. Excessive use of alcohol or other substances was not independently associated with age at onset in multivariate analyses. Alcohol use was associated with a later onset compared with cannabis use, suggesting different relationships to the onset of bipolar disorder. Lifetime use of cannabis predicted an earlier onset, independent of the sequence of onsets. This indicates that an early onset may increase the risk of cannabis use and that cannabis use may trigger bipolar disorder in vulnerable individuals.
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;163(9):1633-616946191