Previous studies of bipolar disorders indicate that childhood abuse and substance abuse are associated with the disorder. Whether both influence the clinical picture, or if one is mediating the association of the other, has not previously been investigated.
A total of 587 patients with bipolar disorders were recruited from Norway and France. A history of childhood abuse was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Diagnosis and clinical variables, including substance abuse, were based on structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders or French version of the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies).
Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with childhood abuse, specifically emotional and sexual abuse (? 2 = 8.63, p = 0.003 and ? 2 = 7.55, p = 0.006, respectively). Cannabis abuse was significantly associated with earlier onset of the illness (z = -4.17, p
The association between high sensation-seeking, close friends' drug use and low parental monitoring with ecstasy (MDMA) use in adolescence was examined in a sample of US household-dwelling adolescents aged 12-18 years (N=5049). We also tested whether associations were of stronger magnitude than associations between these correlates and marijuana or alcohol/tobacco use in adolescence. Data from Round 2 of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) Restricted Use Files (RUF) was analyzed via Jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. High sensation-seekers were more likely to be ecstasy, marijuana, and alcohol/tobacco users, respectively, as compared to low sensation-seekers. High sensation-seeking and close friends' drug use were more strongly associated with ecstasy as compared to marijuana and alcohol/tobacco use. Low parental monitoring was associated with marijuana use and alcohol/tobacco use and there was a trend for it to be associated with ecstasy use. Ecstasy use is strongly associated with peer drug use and more modestly associated with high sensation-seeking. School prevention programs should target high-sensation-seeking adolescents and also encourage them to affiliate with non-drug using peers.
The adolescent marijuana literature is reviewed. Studies show that the prevalence of marijuana use is generally quite low in elementary schools. In junior and senior high samples, findings vary greatly from place to place. The prevalence of use increased dramatically during the 1970s although the use patterns may have peaked already in some areas. The use of marijuana increases with age, but some evidence suggests that a slight drop-off in use occurs near the end of high school. Female use seems to be increasing more than male use. Use seems to be somewhat more prevalent in middle- and upper-middle-class homes and in broken homes. Mixed support has been found for the hypothesis that marijuana users have parents that are more permissive. Parents of marijuana users are generally characterized as being less warm and supportive, and more inclined toward the use of drugs themselves. Peer and sibling use of marijuana seem to be particularly important predictors of adolescent marijuana use. Findings on personality characteristics of marijuana users are not extensive and are somewhat contradictory. There is some evidence that users tend to be somewhat alienated, external in their locus of control, and possibly higher on anxiety. Users are also characterized by a higher value on independence vs achievement and more positive attitudes toward marijuana use. Behavioral correlates of marijuana use include greater use of alcohol and other drugs, and poorer school performance.
In Norway, the use of cannabis was introduced by a resourceful group of oppositional middle-class adolescents in the late 1960s. At the beginning of the 1970s there were, however, signs of a change in the recruitment of the users: youths in trouble from lower social levels gradually started to use the drug. In a prospective longitudinal study of 1311 Norwegian pupils aged 13-19, the possible links between normative and political opposition, mental health and the use of cannabis were investigated. The findings indicate that the group that experiments with cannabis, and use the drugs a few times, is still mainly characterized by a political and normative "oppositional" engagement. Heavy users of cannabis, however, also have family problems and suffer from poor mental health. Thus, the study draws attention to the importance of distinguishing between two different clusters of longitudinal predictors for adolescent cannabis use: the first consists of subcultural opposition and certain personality traits, and seems to predict the earlier stages of use. The second consists of psychosocial problems and poor mental health. From this study one may not conclude that this second cluster predicts heavy cannabis involvement. We have, however, shown that it correlates with heavy involvement, cross-sectionally.
To examine differences in tobacco use and dependence between adolescents who are and are not marijuana users.
Cross-sectional analysis of existing survey data.
Data were obtained from 7440 adolescents who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II (BCYSOSH-II), a school based survey conducted in 2004.
Responses to demographic, current smoking, alcohol use, self-defined tobacco and marijuana use status questions, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, modified-Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (M-FTQ), and the Dimensions of Tobacco Dependence Scale (DTDS) were obtained.
Marijuana users were 5.9 times more likely to be current tobacco smokers and reported higher levels of perceived addiction to tobacco as compared with marijuana non-users. After controlling for demographics, life-time tobacco use, and alcohol use, marijuana use was associated with the nicotine dependent and sensory dimensions of tobacco dependence.
Adolescents who concurrently use tobacco and marijuana may be more tobacco dependent than are marijuana non-users. Concurrent use of marijuana may be a factor associated with tobacco dependence among a sub-group of concomitant drug-using adolescents.
Little is known about adult outcomes of males who as adolescents sought treatment for alcohol misuse or drug use, and who additionally were engaging or not engaging in other forms of delinquency. Since the rates of negative outcomes vary in the general population, the study determined whether the sub-groups of clinic attendees fared differently as compared to males of the same age who had not sought treatment for substance misuse from age 21 to 45. Adolescent males who consulted the only substance misuse clinic in a Swedish city between 1968 and 1971 were divided into four groups: ALCOHOL no drug use, no criminal offending (n=52); ALCOHOL+D no drug use, plus criminal offending (n=105); DRUG use, no criminal offending (n=92); and DRUG+D plus criminal offending (n=474). These four groups were compared to a general population sample (GP) of males matched on age and birthplace, who did not seek treatment for SM in adolescence. National Swedish registers provided data on death, hospitalizations for substance misuse (SM), mental and physical disorders, and criminal convictions. Compared to the GP, and after controlling for co-occurring adult outcomes, ALCOHOL showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization and convictions for violent crimes, and DRUG showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization, convictions for non-violent crimes, and hospitalization for psychosis. ALCOHOL+D and DRUG+D showed increased risk for SM hospitalization, violent and non-violent convictions, and DRUG+D additionally, for death, and hospitalizations for psychosis and physical illness. Misuse of alcohol without drug use or other delinquency in adolescence was associated with increased risk for convictions for violent crimes during the subsequent 25 years, in addition to SM, while adolescent drug use without other forms of delinquency was associated with increased risks for convictions for non-violent crimes, hospitalizations for SM, and non-affective psychosis. Cannabis use, with and without delinquency, was associated with subsequent hospitalization for non-affective psychosis. Consistent with contemporary studies, most adolescents treated for SM from 1968-1971 presented delinquency that was associated with an increase in risk of all adverse outcomes to age 45.
This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning.
Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983, with follow-ups in 1987 and 2001. The sample for analysis includes 1,282 individuals who were between the ages of 12 and 16 years during the original OCHS in 1983 or the first follow-up in 1987 and returned for the 2001 follow-up.
Tobacco use in adolescence and continued use in adulthood is associated with increased risk for poorer functioning across multiple domains, including physical health and life satisfaction (.62 and .66 standard units lower, respectively), depression (Odds Ratio = 3.44), personal income ($7,281 less per year) and years of education (2.29 years lower). Cannabis use is associated with a reduced set of adverse outcomes and the magnitude of the effects is weaker.
The long-term risks associated with adolescent tobacco and cannabis use speak to the importance of prevention and early intervention.
High costs and the potential risk to public health of drug-related workplace accidents are major concerns. Studies conducted to evaluate this problem are restricted by concerns for individual rights and fears of jeopardizing labor relations. However, in collaboration with the Medical Examiner's office. Alberta Occupational Health and Safety examined a unique set of data on 459 deaths occurring at work. The only illicit drug found was cannabis for which 10 workers tested positive. Forty workers tested positive for alcohol, 28 for prescription, and 22 for nonprescription drugs. Evidence of alcohol use was found in a higher percentage of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents, falls, and being caught in or under equipment than in other types of workplace fatalities.
Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most prevalent substance used, and it was rare to find youth who had used tobacco or marijuana without also having tried alcohol. Youth who reported binge drinking were substantially more likely to also have tried tobacco and/or marijuana. These data suggest that multi-substance prevention programs are required for youth populations.