Detailed epidemiological studies on occupational skin diseases (OSDs) are scarce.
To analyze risk occupations for OSDs in the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases (FROD).
We retrieved numbers of OSD cases (excluding skin infections) for different occupations from the FROD in 2005-2016. In the FROD, Finnish ISCO-08-based classification of occupations was used since 2011, and the preceding ISCO-88-based version until 2010. We combined cases from the earlier and the later period using conversion tables provided by Statistics Finland. We included occupations with at least five cases and analyzed them in detail. We calculated incidence rates for OSDs and separately for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in different risk occupations using national labor force statistics. We also studied causes of ACD in these occupations.
Risk occupations with the largest number of OSD cases included farmers, hairdressers, assistant nurses, cooks, cleaners, machinists, and nurses. Occupations with the highest incidences of OSDs comprised spray painters (23.8/10?000 person years), bakers (20.4), and dental technicians (19.0). Epoxy compounds and acrylates were prominent causes of ACD in occupations with the highest incidences of ACD.
Uniform use of International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) would facilitate comparisons of OSD figures in different countries.
Occupational and residential noise exposure has been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alteration of serum lipid levels has been proposed as a possible causal pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels.
This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers who kept a diary on the use of a hearing protection device (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the mean full-shift noise exposure level at the ear.
Mean ambient noise level was 79.9 dB (A) [range 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.8 dB (A) [range 55.0-94.2]. Ambient and at-the-ear noise levels were strongly associated with increasing levels of triglycerides, cholesterol-HDL ratio, and decreasing levels of HDL-cholesterol, but only in unadjusted analyses that did not account for HPD use and other risk factors.
No associations between ambient or at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels were observed. This indicates that a causal pathway between occupational and residential noise exposure and cardiovascular disease does not include alteration of lipid levels.
The purpose of the study was to determine the role of TP53 tumor suppressor gene polymorphisms in the occurrence of skin malignant neoplasms in glass fiber manufacturing workers. We carried out a comparative study of polymorphous loci Arg72Pro and dup16bp in TP53 gene in workers with skin cancer and hyperkeratosis (n = 68), occupied in continuous glass fiber manufacture, and in healthy workers (n = 52). The associations of both Pro and dup16 minor alleles of TP53 gene, and Arg/Pro-W/dup16 genotype combination with higher risks for skin oncologic diseases of occupational genesis have been revealed.
The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-eastern Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox™ test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids. The glassworks- and reference areas were comparable with respect to pH and the content of organic matter and nutrients (C, N, P), but total metal concentrations (Pb, As, Ba, Cd and Zn) were significantly higher at the former sites. Higher metal concentrations in the water-soluble fraction were also observed, even though these concentrations were low compared to the total ones. Nevertheless, toxicity of the glassworks soils was not detected by the two ex situ tests; inhibition of light emission by V. fischeri could not be seen, nor was an effect seen on the growth of L. sativum. A decrease in enchytraeid and nematode abundance and biomass was, however, observed for the landfill soils as compared to reference soils, implying in situ toxicity to soil-inhabiting organisms. The confirmation of in situ bioavailability and negative effects motivates additional studies of the risk posed to humans of the glassworks villages.
The purpose of research is the assessment of the individual cancer risk (ICR) for workers of the basic occupations in key branches of industry of the Irkutsk region. There was executed the calculation of ICR levels for workers of the basic occupations of the aircraft industry, aluminum smelters and vinyl chloride production plants. The estimation of the exposure for workers was carried out according to long-term time-weighted average concentrations in the air of the working area, for the population - on annual average concentrations in the ambient air. To assess the risk that is not associated with the profession, the dose was calculated for the period of life (70 years). When calculating the toxicant doses in the working area there were used the “standard” indices ofpulmonary ventilation for adults, body weight, the work experience in the contact with carcinogens of 30 years, the number of days in the contact of 240, the duration of the working time 8 or 12 hours (in accordance with the working hours) duration. ICR for the Irkutsk population amounted of 3.08E-04, in Shelekhov - 4.8E-05, Sayansk - 1.1E-05. The amount of risk depends on the content offormaldehyde in all territories and chromium VI in cities of Irkutsk and Shelekhov. ICR for workers of basic occupations of studied plants in dozens of times are higher than for the urban population. Priority carcinogens are: chromium VI, nickel, formaldehyde, silicon dioxide -for the aircraft plant employees; 1,2-dichloretan, vinyl chloride - for the workers of vinyl chloride production plant; benzopyrene - for the aluminum smelter workers.
Increased cancer risks have been reported among workers in the rubber manufacturing industry employed before the 1960s, but it is unclear for workers hired subsequently. The present study focused on cancer incidence among rubber workers first employed after 1975 in Sweden and the UK.
Two cohorts of rubber workers employed for at least 1 year were analysed. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), based on country-specific and period-specific incidence rates, were analysed for all cancers combined (except non-melanoma skin), bladder, lung, stomach cancer, leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Exploratory analyses were conducted for other cancers with a minimum of 10 cases in both genders combined.
16 026 individuals (12 441 men; 3585 women) contributed to 397 975 person-years of observation, with 846 cancers observed overall (437 in the UK, 409 in Sweden). No statistically significant increased risk was observed for any site of cancer. A reduced risk was evident for all cancers combined (SIR=0.83, 95% CI (0.74 to 0.92)), lung cancer (SIR=0.74, 95% CI (0.59 to 0.93)), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR=0.67, 95% CI (0.45 to 1.00)) and prostate cancer (SIR=0.77, 95% CI (0.64 to 0.92)). For stomach cancer and multiple myeloma, SIRs were 0.93 (95% CI (0.61 to 1.43)) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.44 to 1.91), respectively. No increased risk of bladder cancer was observed (SIR=0.88, 95% CI (0.61 to 1.28)).
No significantly increased risk of cancer incidence was observed in the combined cohort of rubber workers first employed since 1975. Continued surveillance of the present cohorts is required to confirm absence of long-term risk and confirmatory findings from other cohorts would be important.
Noise exposures are associated with a host of adverse health effects, yet these exposures remain inadequately characterized in many industrial operations, including paper mills. We assessed noise at four paper mills using three measures: (i) personal noise dosimetry, (ii) area noise measurements, and (iii) questionnaire items addressing several different aspects of perceived noise exposure.
We assessed exposures to noise characterized using the three measures and compared the relationships between them. We also estimated the validity of each of the three measures using a novel application of the Method of Triads, which does not appear to have been used previously in the occupational health literature.
We collected 209 valid dosimetry measurements and collected perceived noise exposure survey items from 170 workers, along with 100 area measurements. We identified exposures in excess of 85 dBA at all mills. The dosimetry and area noise measurements assigned to individual subjects generally showed good agreement, but for some operations within mill, large differences between the two measures were observed, and a substantial fraction of paired measures differed by >5 dB. Perceived noise exposures varied greatly between the mills, particularly for an item related to difficulty speaking in noise. One perceived noise exposure item related to difficulty hearing due to noise showed strong and significant correlations with both dosimetry and area measurements. The Method of Triads analysis showed that dosimetry measures had the highest estimated validity coefficient (0.70), and that the best performing perceived exposure measure had validity that exceeded that of area measurements (0.48 versus 0.40, respectively).
Workers in Swedish pulp mills have the potential for exposures to high levels of noise. Our results suggest that, while dosimetry remains the preferred approach to exposure assessment, perceived noise exposures can be used to evaluate potential exposures to noise in epidemiological studies.
Resorcinol is a suspected endocrine disruptor that affects thyroid function by inhibiting thyroxin peroxidase. It may also have an impact on iodine uptake. Resorcinol has various uses; for example in the manufacture of rubber products and in wood adhesives, flame retardants, UV stabilizers, and dyes. It is also used in personal care products such as hair colorants, anti-acne preparations, and peels. The aim of this study was to assess both environmental background exposure and occupational exposure to resorcinol in Finland. We investigated occupational exposure in hairdresser work and in the manufacture of tyres, adhesive resins and glue-laminated timber by biomonitoring total resorcinol concentration in urine samples. The biomonitoring results were compared to the urinary levels of occupationally non-exposed volunteers, and to the biomonitoring equivalent (BE), which we estimated on the basis of the EFSA's acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for resorcinol. Almost all the urine samples (99%) of the non-occupationally exposed volunteers contained measurable amounts of resorcinol. The urinary resorcinol data were rather scattered, and the resorcinol concentrations among women (GM 84?µg/l, 95th percentile 2072?µg/l) were clearly higher than the respective concentrations among men (GM 35?µg/l, 95th percentile 587?µg/l). The reason for this difference remains unclear. Although the two highest results exceeded the BE of 4?mg/l calculated on the basis of the EFSA's ADI, the 95th percentile of the occupationally non-exposed volunteers' results remained well below the BE among both males and females. According to the results, hairdressers' exposure to resorcinol was at the same level as that of the reference population of occupationally non-exposed volunteers. All hairdresser's values remained below the BE for resorcinol. The urinary resorcinol levels of the industrial workers were also at the same level as those of the reference population. We observed slight increases in the post-shift and evening samples of those working in the manufacture of tyres and adhesive resins. The results of some workers in the tyre manufacturing company exceeded the 95th percentile of non-occupationally exposed males, which was used as a biological guidance value for occupational exposure. Moreover, in this case exposure was below the health-based biomonitoring equivalents. All the air samples collected in the companies contained very low resorcinol concentrations. It should be noted that the sample sizes for the male controls and industrial groups were small.
Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.
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Welding fume consists of metal fumes, e.g., manganese (Mn) and gases, e.g., ozone. Particles in the respirable dust (RD) size range dominate. Exposure to welding fume could cause short- and long-term respiratory effects. The prevalence of work-related symptoms among mild steel welders was studied, and the occupational exposure to welding fumes was quantified by repeated measurements of RD, respirable Mn, and ozone. Also the variance components were studied.
A questionnaire concerning airway symptoms and occupational history was answered by 79% of a cohort of 484 welders. A group of welders (N = 108) were selected and surveyed by personal exposure measurements of RD and ozone three times during 1 year.
The welders had a high frequency of work-related symptoms, e.g., stuffy nose (33%), ocular symptoms (28%), and dry cough (24%). The geometric mean exposure to RD and respirable Mn was 1.3 mg/m(3) (min-max 0.1-38.3 mg/m(3)) and 0.08 mg/m(3) (min-max