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16 records – page 1 of 2.

An ecosystem-wide reproductive failure with more snow in the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308639
Source
PLoS Biol. 2019 10; 17(10):e3000392
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2019
Author
Niels Martin Schmidt
Jeroen Reneerkens
Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen
Martin Olesen
Tomas Roslin
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
Source
PLoS Biol. 2019 10; 17(10):e3000392
Date
10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds - physiology
Climate change
Ecosystem
Genetic Fitness
Mammals - physiology
Plant Dormancy
Plants
Rain
Seasons
Abstract
2018: Arctic researchers have just witnessed another extreme summer-but in a new sense of the word. Although public interest has long been focused on general warming trends and trends towards a lower sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, this summer saw the realization of another predicted trend: that of increasing precipitation during the winter months and of increased year-to-year variability. In a well-studied ecosystem in Northeast Greenland, this resulted in the most complete reproductive failure encountered in the terrestrial ecosystem during more than two decades of monitoring: only a few animals and plants were able to reproduce because of abundant and late melting snow. These observations, we suggest, should open our eyes to potentially drastic consequences of predicted changes in both the mean and the variability of arctic climate.
PubMed ID
31613872 View in PubMed
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Arctic marine mammals: a tenuous future.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92647
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Jul 1;42(13):4624
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2008

Assessing vessel slowdown for reducing auditory masking for marine mammals and fish of the western Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296514
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:290-302
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Matthew K Pine
David E Hannay
Stephen J Insley
William D Halliday
Francis Juanes
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada; Wildlife Conservation Society Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada. Electronic address: mattpine@uvic.ca.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:290-302
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Ecosystem
Fishes - physiology
Mammals - physiology
Noise
Ships
Abstract
Vessel slowdown may be an alternative mitigation option in regions where re-routing shipping corridors to avoid important marine mammal habitat is not possible. We investigated the potential relief in masking in marine mammals and fish from a 10 knot speed reduction of container and cruise ships. The mitigation effect from slower vessels was not equal between ambient sound conditions, species or vessel-type. Under quiet ambient conditions, a speed reduction from 25 to 15 knots resulted in smaller listening space reductions by 16-23%, 10-18%, 1-2%, 5-8% and 8% respectively for belugas, bowheads, bearded seals, ringed seals, and fish, depending on vessel-type. However, under noisy conditions, those savings were between 9 and 19% more, depending on the species. This was due to the differences in species' hearing sensitivities and the low ambient sound levels measured in the study region. Vessel slowdown could be an effective mitigation strategy for reducing masking.
PubMed ID
30301040 View in PubMed
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[A study of the distribution ranges of small mammals from South-Eastern Transbaikalia with ecological niche modeling methods].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262089
Source
Zh Obshch Biol. 2014 Sep-Oct;75(5):353-71
Publication Type
Article
Author
A A Lisovskii
E V Obolenskaia
Source
Zh Obshch Biol. 2014 Sep-Oct;75(5):353-71
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Ecosystem
Mammals - physiology
Models, Biological
Siberia
Abstract
Distribution models were constructed for 36 species of small mammals from South-Eastern Transbaikalia. Distribution of environmental factors (climatic data and remote sensing of the earth surface) in the set of localities where each of the species was caught was taken as initial data for modeling. Species distribution ranges can be explained by distribution of environmental factors only in 30 cases out of 36. Seventeen of them can be explained by one or two environmental factors only. In 6 cases notable influence of historical factors or interspecific competition on present species distribution was found out. For these 6 species, modeling results make it possible to suggest hypotheses about reasons behind present distribution, which could not be advanced without modeling approach.
PubMed ID
25782274 View in PubMed
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Dry paths effectively reduce road mortality of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263446
Source
J Environ Manage. 2014 Nov 1;144:51-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2014
Author
Milla Niemi
Niina C Jääskeläinen
Petri Nummi
Tiina Mäkelä
Kai Norrdahl
Source
J Environ Manage. 2014 Nov 1;144:51-7
Date
Nov-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Amphibians - physiology
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods - statistics & numerical data
Finland
Mammals - physiology
Models, Theoretical
Mortality
Movement
Reptiles - physiology
Seasons
Abstract
Wildlife passages are widely used mitigation measures designed to reduce the adverse impacts of roads on animals. We investigated whether road kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates can be reduced by constructing dry paths adjacent to streams that pass under road bridges. The study was carried out in southern Finland during the summer of 2008. We selected ten road bridges with dry paths and ten bridges without them, and an individual dry land reference site for each study bridge on the basis of landscape and traffic features. A total of 307 dead terrestrial vertebrates were identified during the ten-week study period. The presence of dry paths decreased the amount of road-killed terrestrial vertebrates (Poisson GLMM; p 
PubMed ID
24921961 View in PubMed
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Effects of large herbivores on tundra vegetation in a changing climate, and implications for rewilding.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302765
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018 10 22; 373(1761):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
10-22-2018
Author
Johan Olofsson
Eric Post
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden johan.olofsson@emg.umu.se.
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018 10 22; 373(1761):
Date
10-22-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Ecosystem
Herbivory
Mammals - physiology
Tundra
Abstract
In contrast to that of the Pleistocene epoch, between approximately 2.6 million and 10 000 years before present, the extant community of large herbivores in Arctic tundra is species-poor predominantly due to human extinctions. We here discuss how this species-poor herbivore guild influences tundra ecosystems, especially in relation to the rapidly changing climate. We show that present herbivore assemblages have large effects on tundra ecosystem composition and function and suggest that the effect on thermophilic species expected to invade the tundra in a warmer climate is especially strong, and that herbivores slow ecosystem responses to climate change. We focus on the ability of herbivores to drive transitions between different vegetation states. One such transition is between tundra and forest. A second vegetation transition discussed is between grasslands and moss- and shrub-dominated tundra. Contemporary studies show that herbivores can drive such state shifts and that a more diverse herbivore assemblage would have even higher potential to do so. We conclude that even though many large herbivores, and especially the megaherbivores, are extinct, there is a potential to reintroduce large herbivores in many arctic locations, and that doing so would potentially reduce some of the unwanted effects of a warmer climate.This article is part of the theme issue 'Trophic rewilding: consequences for ecosystems under global change'.
PubMed ID
30348880 View in PubMed
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Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and climate change: A worst-case combination for arctic marine mammals and seabirds?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95717
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Apr;114 Suppl 1:76-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Jenssen Bjørn Munro
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. bjorn.munro.jenssen@bio.ntnu.no
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Apr;114 Suppl 1:76-80
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds - physiology
Climate
Ecosystem
Endocrine Disruptors - toxicity
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Greenhouse Effect
Mammals - physiology
Abstract
The effects of global change on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning encompass multiple complex dynamic processes. Climate change and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are currently regarded as two of the most serious anthropogenic threats to biodiversity and ecosystems. We should, therefore, be especially concerned about the possible effects of EDCs on the ability of Arctic marine mammals and seabirds to adapt to environmental alterations caused by climate change. Relationships between various organochlorine compounds, necessary such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and oxychlordane, and hormones in Arctic mammals and seabirds imply that these chemicals pose a threat to endocrine systems of these animals. The most pronounced relationships have been reported with the thyroid hormone system, but effects are also seen in sex steroid hormones and cortisol. Even though behavioral and morphological effects of persistent organic pollutants are consistent with endocrine disruption, no direct evidence exists for such relationships. Because different endocrine systems are important for enabling animals to respond adequately to environmental stress, EDCs may interfere with adaptations to increased stress situations. Such interacting effects are likely related to adaptive responses regulated by the thyroid, sex steroid, and glucocorticosteroid systems.
PubMed ID
16818250 View in PubMed
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Impact of rewilding, species introductions and climate change on the structure and function of the Yukon boreal forest ecosystem.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291286
Source
Integr Zool. 2018 Mar; 13(2):123-138
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2018
Author
Rudy Boonstra
Stan Boutin
Thomas S Jung
Charles J Krebs
Shawn Taylor
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Integr Zool. 2018 Mar; 13(2):123-138
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Demography
Environmental monitoring
Mammals - physiology
Taiga
Time Factors
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Community and ecosystem changes are happening in the pristine boreal forest ecosystem of the Yukon for 2 reasons. First, climate change is affecting the abiotic environment (temperature, rainfall and growing season) and driving changes in plant productivity and predator-prey interactions. Second, simultaneously change is occurring because of mammal species reintroductions and rewilding. The key ecological question is the impact these faunal changes will have on trophic dynamics. Primary productivity in the boreal forest is increasing because of climatic warming, but plant species composition is unlikely to change significantly during the next 50-100 years. The 9-10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares will persist but could be reduced in amplitude if winter weather increases predator hunting efficiency. Small rodents have increased in abundance because of increased vegetation growth. Arctic ground squirrels have disappeared from the forest because of increased predator hunting efficiency associated with shrub growth. Reintroductions have occurred for 2 reasons: human reintroductions of large ungulates and natural recolonization of mammals and birds extending their geographic ranges. The deliberate rewilding of wood bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus canadensis) has changed the trophic structure of this boreal ecosystem very little. The natural range expansion of mountain lions (Puma concolor), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and American marten (Martes americana) should have few ecosystem effects. Understanding potential changes will require long-term monitoring studies and experiments on a scale we rarely deem possible. Ecosystems affected by climate change, species reintroductions and human alteration of habitats cannot remain stable and changes will be critically dependent on food web interactions.
PubMed ID
29168615 View in PubMed
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Marine pelagic ecosystems: the west Antarctic Peninsula.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95645
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 Jan 29;362(1477):67-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-29-2007
Author
Ducklow Hugh W
Baker Karen
Martinson Douglas G
Quetin Langdon B
Ross Robin M
Smith Raymond C
Stammerjohn Sharon E
Vernet Maria
Fraser William
Author Affiliation
School of Marine Science, The College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA. duck@vims.edu
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 Jan 29;362(1477):67-94
Date
Jan-29-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antarctic Regions
Biomass
Carbon - analysis
Ecosystem
Euphausiacea - physiology
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Greenhouse Effect
Ice Cover
Mammals - physiology
Oceanography
Oceans and Seas
Plankton - physiology
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Spheniscidae - physiology
Temperature
Abstract
The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2 degrees C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6 degrees C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6 degrees C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in icedependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate/ecological gradients extending along the WAP and the presence of monitoring systems, field stations and long-term research programmes make the region an invaluable observatory of climate change and marine ecosystem response.
PubMed ID
17405208 View in PubMed
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16 records – page 1 of 2.