Injection drug use and malnutrition are widespread among polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway, but little is known about the frequency of abscess infections and possible relations to malnutrition.
To assess the prevalence of abscess infections, and differences in nutritional status between drug addicts with or without abscess infections.
A cross-sectional study of 195 polydrug addicts encompassing interview of demographics, dietary recall, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. All respondents were under the influence of illicit drugs and were not participating in any drug treatment or rehabilitation program at the time of investigation.
Abscess infections were reported by 25% of the respondents, 19% of the men and 33% of the women (p = 0.025). Underweight (BMI 15 ?mol/L) was 73% in the abscess-infected group and 41% in the non-abscess-infected group (p = 0.001). The concentrations of S-25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 was very low.
The prevalence of abscess infections was 25% among the examined polydrug addicts. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessment indicated a relation between abscess infections and malnutrition.
OBJECTIVE: Resistin is a specific fat-derived hormone that affects fuel homeostasis and insulin action in rodents. However, its role in human physiology and pathophysiologic conditions, such as malnutrition, remains uncertain. METHODS: To enhance understanding of the role of resistin in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN), we measured plasma resistin levels in 13 women with a restrictive type of AN and in 16 healthy age-matched women (control). Further, we measured resistin levels in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of eight women from the AN group and eight women from the control group with an in vivo microdialysis technique (CMA/107 pump, CMA/60 catheters, CMA Microdialysis AB, Solna, Sweden). RESULTS: Body mass index, percentage of body fat, fasting plasma leptin and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance were severely decreased in patients with AN compared with the control group. Plasma resistin levels were significantly decreased in patients with AN (P
The data on of alimentary risk factors of osteoporosis have been observed. The frequency of decreased bone mineral density, vitamin and calcium diet content and sufficiency with vitamins evaluated by means of blood serum level determination among patients suffering from chronic diseases (of cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, osteopenia and osteoporosis).
Several studies published over the last few years have shown that malnutrition is a risk factor for developing and worsening Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that a balanced diet can delay the onset of the disease. During the period from January 1999 to January 2007, a statistically significant increase in the number of deaths related to malnutrition was found among the elderly in Denmark. Many more may have been suffering from malnutrition, but not to such a degree that it led to their deaths.
The aim of this study is to examine whether or not the effect of the malnutrition period can be seen in the number of AD-related deaths.
All Danes listed in the National Death Register from 1994 to 2012 where included in this study. Regression analyses based on the Expansion Method were used.
We found a sudden statistically significant rise in the number of deaths from AD associated with the period when the general nutritional state among the elderly in Denmark worsened (from 1999 to 2007).
The study concludes that the malnutrition period resulted in an excess death rate from Alzheimer's disease. All in all, a total of 345 extra lives were lost, and many might have developed AD earlier than they otherwise would, due to malnutrition.
AIMS: To study, within municipal care and county council care, (1) chief nurses' and registered nurses' perceptions of patient nutritional status assessment and nutritional assessment/screening tools, (2) registered nurses' perceptions of documentation in relation to nutrition and advantages and disadvantages with a documentation model. BACKGROUND: Chief nurses and registered nurses have a responsibility to identify malnourished patients and those at risk of malnutrition. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this descriptive study, 15 chief nurses in municipal care and 27 chief nurses in county council care were interviewed by telephone via a semi-structured interview guide. One hundred and thirty-one registered nurses (response rate 72%) from 14 municipalities and 28 hospital wards responded to the questionnaire, all in one county. RESULTS: According to the majority of chief nurses and registered nurses, only certain patients were assessed, on admission and/or during the stay. Nutritional assessment/screening tools and nutritional guidelines were seldom used. Most of the registered nurses documented nausea/vomiting, ability to eat and drink, diarrhoea and difficulties in chewing and swallowing, while energy intake and body mass index were rarely documented. However, the majority documented their judgement about the patient's nutritional condition. The registered nurses perceived the VIPS model (Swedish nursing documentation model) as a guideline as well as a model obstructing the information exchange. Differences were found between nurses (chief nurses/registered nurses) in municipal care and county council care, but not between registered nurses and their chief nurses. CONCLUSIONS: All patients are not nutritionally assessed and important nutritional parameters are not documented. Nutritionally compromised patients may remain unidentified and not properly cared for. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Assessment and documentation of the patients' nutritional status should be routinely performed in a more structured way in both municipal care and county council care. There is a need for increased nutritional nursing knowledge.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gain information about the effects of implementation of a written food and meal policy and to evaluate to what extent systematic nutritional assessment and intervention would result in weight stability among the residents. BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that aged residents living in institutions suffer from malnutrition or are at risk of malnutrition. Health policies have pointed out that more attention should be given to individualised nutritional care. Several techniques are available to identify malnourished nursing home residents, but very few studies have reported findings of studies based on systematic nutritional assessment. DESIGN AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study based on a time series design used the residents as their own controls. The study included all 20 residents who resided at the nursing home at baseline in September 2004. Five residents died during the study period (mean age 84.4 years, range 62-91 years). Altogether 15 residents (75%) were assessed all five times during the study period. RESULTS: The proportion of weight-stable residents increased significantly over the study from 52.6% (CI 99%: 23.1-80.2) at baseline to 87.7% (p
To determine the association of polypharmacy with nutritional status, functional ability and cognitive capacity among elderly persons.
This was a prospective cohort study of 294 survivors from the population-based Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly (GeMS) Study, with yearly follow-ups during 2004 to 2007. Participants were the citizens of Kuopio, Finland, aged 75 years and older at baseline. Polypharmacy status was categorized as non-polypharmacy (0-5 drugs), polypharmacy (6-9 drugs) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ drugs). A linear mixed model approach was used for analysis the impact of polypharmacy on short form of mini nutritional assessment (MNA-SF), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and mini-mental status examination (MMSE) scores.
Excessive polypharmacy was associated with declined nutritional status (p?=?0.001), functional ability (p?
To identify what nurses experience as barriers to ensuring adequate nutritional care for the undernourished hospitalized elderly.
Undernutrition occurs frequently among the hospitalised elderly and can result in a variety of negative consequences if not treated. Nevertheless, undernutrition is often unrecognised and undertreated. Nurses have a great responsibility for nutritional care, as this is part of the patient's basic needs. Exploring nurses' experiences of preventing and treating undernourishment among older patients in hospitals is therefore highly relevant.
A focus group study was employed based on a hermeneutic phenomenological methodological approach.
Four focus group interviews with totally 16 nurses working in one large university hospital in Norway were conducted in spring 2012. The nurses were recruited from seven somatic wards, all with a high proportion of older (=70 years) inpatients. The data were analysed in the three interpretative contexts: self-understanding, a critical common-sense understanding and a theoretical understanding.
We identified five themes that reflect barriers the nurses experience in relation to ensuring adequate nutritional care for the undernourished elderly: loneliness in nutritional care, a need for competence in nutritional care, low flexibility in food service practices, system failure in nutritional care and nutritional care is being ignored.
The results imply that nutritional care at the university hospital has its limits within the hospital structure and organisation, but also regarding the nurses' competence. Moreover, the barriers revealed that the undernourished elderly are not identified and treated properly as stipulated in the recommendations in the national guidelines on the prevention and treatment of undernutrition.
The barriers revealed in this study are valuable when considering improvements to nutritional care practices on hospital wards to enable undernourished older inpatients to be identified and treated properly.
Laboratorio de Composición Corporal y Gasto Energético, Centro de Investigación en Nutrición y Salud Pública, Facultad de Salud Pública y Nutrición, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, México.
Obesity and undernutrition co-exist in many regions of Mexico. However, accurate assessments are difficult because epidemiological data on body composition are not available. The aim of this study was to facilitate assessments of body composition in Mexican school children of different geographical regions and ethnicity by developing equations for bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry based on deuterium oxide dilution.
We evaluated 336 subjects (143 belonged to six major indigenous groups) from Northern, Central and Southern Mexico. We measured height (Ht), weight (Wt), tricipital skinfold (Tricp-SKF) and resistance (R) based on a bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated from measurements of total body water with the deuterium dilution technique.
The final BIA equation was FFM (kg)=0.661 × Ht²/R+0.200 × Wt-0.320. The R² was 0.96; the square root of the mean square error (SRMSE) was 1.39?kg. The final anthropometric equation was FM (kg)=-1.067 × sex+0.458 × Tricp-SKF+0.263 × Wt-5.407. The R² was 0.91; SRMSE was 1.60?kg. The BIA equation had a bias of 0.095?kg and precision of 1.43?kg. The anthropometric equation had a bias of 0.047?kg and precision of 1.58?kg.
We validated two equations for evaluating body composition in Mexican indigenous and non-indigenous children and youth from three main regions of the country. These equations provided reliable estimates and will promote a better understanding of both obesity and undernutrition.