Live oral candidate rotavirus vaccines of bovine (RIT 4237) or rhesus (RRV-1) origin and reassortants of RRV-1 expressing human serotype 1 (DxRRV) or serotype 2 (DS1xRRV) VP7 protein were evaluated for clinical efficacy in young children in successive trials from 1983 to 1989. In each study, the vaccinations were given before a rotavirus epidemic season and the follow-up of vaccinees covered two rotavirus epidemic seasons lasting up to 2-3 years of age. Serotype 1 rotavirus was predominant in each season. Protection rates against all rotavirus-associated diarrhoea ranged from 0 to 67% but were higher, up to 100%, against more severe rotavirus disease. All tested vaccines also showed efficacy for diarrhoea not apparently associated with rotavirus; therefore the clinical benefit of the vaccinations was greater than could be deduced from efficacy rates for rotavirus-associated diarrhoea alone. Each of the candidate vaccines could significantly reduce severe diarrhoea in Finnish children in the first 2 to 3 years of life. For optimal efficacy, the vaccines should be administered in the autumn before the regular epidemic season of rotavirus.
IgG antibodies reactive with simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a rhesus monkey suffering from simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SIVmac, strain 239, a virus which is very closely related to human immunodeficiency virus type 2-HIV-2) were found in 18 of 120 Swedish and 8 of 11 east African confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive (HIV-1 ab+) sera, both by enzyme immunoassay and electrophoretic immunoblotting (p = 1 x 10(-6). In electrophoretic immunoblotting most of the cross-reactivity of SIVmac-reactive sera occurred on p27, the major gag protein of SIVmac. The possibility that SIVmac antibody reactivity could be due to double infection with HIV-1 and a SIVmac-related virus was eliminated by the results of absorptions between sera of Swedish and west and east African origin and viral antigens (SIVmac and North American or African/Haitian strains of HIV-1) coupled to agarose beads. HIV-2 ab+ and SIVmac reactive west African sera recognized SIVmac epitopes unrelated to HIV-1, whereas HIV-1 ab+, SIVmac reactive east African, and Swedish sera recognized SIVmac epitopes cross-reactive with epitopes present in both African and North American HIV-1 strains. No unique SIVmac-reactive African HIV-1 epitopes could thus be defined. Neither did absorption of Swedish and African HIV-1-positive sera with different HIV-1 strains (1 Haitian, 2 Zairian, and 1 North American) give evidence for unique epitopes.
It has been demonstrated that normal, uninflamed, anterior uvea and conjunctiva of different species have the capacity to synthesize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products. Cyclooxygenase activity is greater than lipoxygenase activity in both anterior uvea and conjunctival tissues. Other ocular tissues such as cornea, lens, and retina were found to have much lesser capacity than the conjunctiva and anterior uvea to synthesize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products from arachidonic acid. In our preliminary studies, we also observed that human retina have considerably less ability to metabolize AA into cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activity. The finding that the anterior uvea of all species studied has a high capacity to synthesize PGs and other cyclooxygenase products maybe of particular physiological significance since several investigators have demonstrated that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha in low doses, lower intraocular pressure in all species studied, including the human eye. Additionally, PGE2 can be shown to have some anti-inflammatory effects. In light of these observations, we must consider that the high endogenous cyclooxygenase activity in normal conjunctiva and anterior uvea may play a role in maintaining normal intraocular pressure and in preventing the development of inflammation in response to normal environmental stimuli. Arachidonic acid is also metabolized into biologically active compounds by cytochrome P450 in corneal endothelium. It is not yet known whether or not other ocular tissues also have the ability to metabolize arachidonic acid via this pathway and whether these compounds, when synthesized from endogenous arachidonic acid stores in vivo have any biological effects on the eye. Studies on omega-3 fatty acid metabolism were done for two main reasons: (1) PGE3 and PGD3 lowered intraocular pressure without causing ocular inflammation in rabbit; and (2) some surveys demonstrated that in Greenland Eskimos whose marine diet is enriched with omega-3 substrate eicosapentaenoic acid, have a lower incidence of open-angle glaucoma as compared to Caucasians, whose diet is rich in arachidonic acid. The ability of anterior uvea to synthesize PGE3 and PGD3 in human, monkey, and rabbit anterior uvea warrants further investigation to determine whether or not these omega-3 PGs play a role in lowering intraocular pressure.
Three species of nonhuman primates were fed an atherogenic diet for 6 months (baseline period) and a menhaden oil (EPA)-containing diet for 8 weeks (test period) during which various hemostatic and lipid parameters were compared. The EPA-rich diet prolonged bleeding times, inhibited platelet aggregation response to ADP and collagen, and increased mean platelet lifespan. This diet elicited an increase in the polyunsaturated fatty acids C20:5 (EPA) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid) at the expense of C18:2 (linoleic acid) and C20:4 (arachidonic acid) in pooled samples of platelet membranes, creating an increase in the ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The serum lipid response to a menhaden oil diet comprised a nonsignificant decrease in total serum cholesterol and a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol.
In this article we discuss examples of challenging problems in retrospective dosimetry and describe some promising solutions. The ability to make measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and luminescence techniques promises to provide improved dosimetry for regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation contaminated by radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, it may soon be possible to resolve the large neutron discrepancy in the dosimetry system for Hiroshima through novel measurement techniques that can be used to reconstruct the fast-neutron fluence emitted by the bomb some 51 years ago. Important advances in molecular cytogenetics and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have produced biodosimeters that show potential in retrospective dosimetry. The most promising of these are the frequency of reciprocal translocations measured in chromosomes of blood lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal in tooth enamel.
Enterovirus uveitis (EU) is a new infant eye disease that was first observed in 1980. Three distinct subtypes of human echoviruses, EV19/K, EV11/A and EV11/B, caused five hospital outbreaks of EU in different Siberian cities in 1980-1989, affecting approximately 750 children, predominantly below 1 year of age. Sporadic EU cases were also retrospectively diagnosed in other regions of Russia and in different countries of the Former Soviet Union. The illness was characterised by rapid iris destruction and severe complications, including cataract and glaucoma. The disease has been a subject of intensive studies and was reproduced in lower primates after intraocular inoculation of isolated enterovirus strains. Importantly, prototype EV11 and EV19 strains did not induce notable disease in experimental monkeys. Some of the EU-causing strains were shown to be similar phylogenetically and in their pathogenetic properties to the enterovirus strains associated with multisystem hemorrhagic disease of newborns. In this review we present a summary of the vast epidemiological, virological, clinical and experimental data on this new form of ophthalmic infection.
Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space.
There is evidence for the rather high detection rate of antibodies against hepatic E virus (HEV) was rather high in the macaques from the Adler apery in 1999-2005. Anti-HEV was detected in 232 (57.3%) out of 405 examined rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata) and in 16 (16%) out of 100 Java ones (M. fascicularis). The detection rate of anti-HEV ranged from 12.5 to 89.5%% among the rhesus macaques and from 5.9 to 37.5% among the Java ones. Class M anti-HEV was found only in 3 (4.3%) out of 69 Java macaques and in none of the rhesus ones. Of importance are the data of detection of anti-HEV in 3 (7.5%) out of 40 examined employees of the Research Institute of Medical Primatology, all 3 (18.8%) out of 10 employees looking after the monkeys that belonged to the highest-risk group. The epidemiological and epizootological aspects of this infection require further studies.