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25 records – page 1 of 3.

Clinical trials of live oral rotavirus vaccines: the Finnish experience.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222146
Source
Vaccine. 1993;11(2):255-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
T. Vesikari
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland.
Source
Vaccine. 1993;11(2):255-61
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Animals
Cattle - microbiology
Child, Preschool
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Diarrhea, Infantile - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Double-Blind Method
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Macaca mulatta - microbiology
Rotavirus - immunology - isolation & purification
Rotavirus Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Vaccination - economics
Vaccines, Attenuated
Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Abstract
Live oral candidate rotavirus vaccines of bovine (RIT 4237) or rhesus (RRV-1) origin and reassortants of RRV-1 expressing human serotype 1 (DxRRV) or serotype 2 (DS1xRRV) VP7 protein were evaluated for clinical efficacy in young children in successive trials from 1983 to 1989. In each study, the vaccinations were given before a rotavirus epidemic season and the follow-up of vaccinees covered two rotavirus epidemic seasons lasting up to 2-3 years of age. Serotype 1 rotavirus was predominant in each season. Protection rates against all rotavirus-associated diarrhoea ranged from 0 to 67% but were higher, up to 100%, against more severe rotavirus disease. All tested vaccines also showed efficacy for diarrhoea not apparently associated with rotavirus; therefore the clinical benefit of the vaccinations was greater than could be deduced from efficacy rates for rotavirus-associated diarrhoea alone. Each of the candidate vaccines could significantly reduce severe diarrhoea in Finnish children in the first 2 to 3 years of life. For optimal efficacy, the vaccines should be administered in the autumn before the regular epidemic season of rotavirus.
PubMed ID
8382419 View in PubMed
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Comments on Schindler et al, "Abnormalities of thalamic volume and shape detected in fetally irradiated rhesus monkeys with high dimensional brain mapping".

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188014
Source
Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Nov 1;52(9):911-2; author reply 912-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2002

Cross-reactivity with SIVmac in east African HIV-1-positive sera: evidence against double infection with HIV-1 and a SIVmac/HIV-2-like virus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature8429
Source
Intervirology. 1990;31(5):276-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
J. Blomberg
P J Klasse
C. Pehrson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Sweden.
Source
Intervirology. 1990;31(5):276-84
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - immunology - microbiology
Animals
Antibodies, Viral - immunology
Antigens, Viral - immunology
Cross Reactions
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Epitopes
HIV Antibodies - immunology
HIV Antigens - immunology
HIV Seropositivity
HIV-1 - immunology
HIV-2 - immunology
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Immunosorbent Techniques
Macaca mulatta
Simian immunodeficiency virus - immunology
Sweden
Uganda
Abstract
IgG antibodies reactive with simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a rhesus monkey suffering from simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SIVmac, strain 239, a virus which is very closely related to human immunodeficiency virus type 2-HIV-2) were found in 18 of 120 Swedish and 8 of 11 east African confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive (HIV-1 ab+) sera, both by enzyme immunoassay and electrophoretic immunoblotting (p = 1 x 10(-6). In electrophoretic immunoblotting most of the cross-reactivity of SIVmac-reactive sera occurred on p27, the major gag protein of SIVmac. The possibility that SIVmac antibody reactivity could be due to double infection with HIV-1 and a SIVmac-related virus was eliminated by the results of absorptions between sera of Swedish and west and east African origin and viral antigens (SIVmac and North American or African/Haitian strains of HIV-1) coupled to agarose beads. HIV-2 ab+ and SIVmac reactive west African sera recognized SIVmac epitopes unrelated to HIV-1, whereas HIV-1 ab+, SIVmac reactive east African, and Swedish sera recognized SIVmac epitopes cross-reactive with epitopes present in both African and North American HIV-1 strains. No unique SIVmac-reactive African HIV-1 epitopes could thus be defined. Neither did absorption of Swedish and African HIV-1-positive sera with different HIV-1 strains (1 Haitian, 2 Zairian, and 1 North American) give evidence for unique epitopes.
PubMed ID
1703133 View in PubMed
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Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in anterior uvea and conjunctiva.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5417
Source
Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;312:39-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Author
Kulkarni PS
Srinivasan BD
Author Affiliation
Kentucky Lions Eye Research Institute School of Medicine, University of Louisville 40202.
Source
Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;312:39-52
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arachidonic Acids - analysis
Biological Assay
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Ciliary Body - enzymology
Conjunctiva - enzymology
Guinea Pigs
Iris - enzymology
Lipoxygenase - metabolism
Macaca fascicularis
Macaca mulatta
Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases - metabolism
Rabbits
Radioimmunoassay
Rats
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Uvea - enzymology
Abstract
It has been demonstrated that normal, uninflamed, anterior uvea and conjunctiva of different species have the capacity to synthesize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products. Cyclooxygenase activity is greater than lipoxygenase activity in both anterior uvea and conjunctival tissues. Other ocular tissues such as cornea, lens, and retina were found to have much lesser capacity than the conjunctiva and anterior uvea to synthesize cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products from arachidonic acid. In our preliminary studies, we also observed that human retina have considerably less ability to metabolize AA into cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase activity. The finding that the anterior uvea of all species studied has a high capacity to synthesize PGs and other cyclooxygenase products maybe of particular physiological significance since several investigators have demonstrated that PGE2 and PGF2 alpha in low doses, lower intraocular pressure in all species studied, including the human eye. Additionally, PGE2 can be shown to have some anti-inflammatory effects. In light of these observations, we must consider that the high endogenous cyclooxygenase activity in normal conjunctiva and anterior uvea may play a role in maintaining normal intraocular pressure and in preventing the development of inflammation in response to normal environmental stimuli. Arachidonic acid is also metabolized into biologically active compounds by cytochrome P450 in corneal endothelium. It is not yet known whether or not other ocular tissues also have the ability to metabolize arachidonic acid via this pathway and whether these compounds, when synthesized from endogenous arachidonic acid stores in vivo have any biological effects on the eye. Studies on omega-3 fatty acid metabolism were done for two main reasons: (1) PGE3 and PGD3 lowered intraocular pressure without causing ocular inflammation in rabbit; and (2) some surveys demonstrated that in Greenland Eskimos whose marine diet is enriched with omega-3 substrate eicosapentaenoic acid, have a lower incidence of open-angle glaucoma as compared to Caucasians, whose diet is rich in arachidonic acid. The ability of anterior uvea to synthesize PGE3 and PGD3 in human, monkey, and rabbit anterior uvea warrants further investigation to determine whether or not these omega-3 PGs play a role in lowering intraocular pressure.
PubMed ID
2508129 View in PubMed
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[Disinformation about the risks of adverse effect for children and fetuses of thiomersal in the vaccine]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98074
Source
Lakartidningen. 2009 Dec 22;106(52):3521
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-22-2009
Author
Maths Berlin
Author Affiliation
maths.berlin@ki.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2009 Dec 22;106(52):3521
Date
Dec-22-2009
Language
Swedish
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Brain - drug effects
Child
Drug Information Services
Female
Fetus - drug effects
Humans
Influenza Vaccines - adverse effects
Macaca mulatta
Pregnancy
Preservatives, Pharmaceutical - adverse effects - toxicity
Risk factors
Sweden
Thimerosal - adverse effects - toxicity
Notes
RefSource: Lakartidningen. 2009 Dec 22;106(52):3522
PubMed ID
20151514 View in PubMed
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The effect of a menhaden oil-containing diet on hemostatic and lipid parameters of nonhuman primates with atherosclerosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature238111
Source
Atherosclerosis. 1985 Nov;57(2-3):325-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1985
Author
M V Ward
T B Clarkson
Source
Atherosclerosis. 1985 Nov;57(2-3):325-35
Date
Nov-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arteriosclerosis - blood - diet therapy - etiology
Bleeding time
Blood Platelets - cytology - drug effects
Cell Survival - drug effects
Diet, Atherogenic
Dietary Fats - pharmacology
Erythrocebus patas
Fish Oils
Greenland
Hemostasis - drug effects
Humans
Inuits
Lipids - blood
Macaca fascicularis
Macaca mulatta
Male
Oils - pharmacology
Platelet Aggregation - drug effects
Abstract
Three species of nonhuman primates were fed an atherogenic diet for 6 months (baseline period) and a menhaden oil (EPA)-containing diet for 8 weeks (test period) during which various hemostatic and lipid parameters were compared. The EPA-rich diet prolonged bleeding times, inhibited platelet aggregation response to ADP and collagen, and increased mean platelet lifespan. This diet elicited an increase in the polyunsaturated fatty acids C20:5 (EPA) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid) at the expense of C18:2 (linoleic acid) and C20:4 (arachidonic acid) in pooled samples of platelet membranes, creating an increase in the ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The serum lipid response to a menhaden oil diet comprised a nonsignificant decrease in total serum cholesterol and a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol.
PubMed ID
4084362 View in PubMed
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Emerging technological bases for retrospective dosimetry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22298
Source
Stem Cells. 1997;15 Suppl 2:183-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
T. Straume
L R Anspaugh
E H Haskell
J N Lucas
A A Marchetti
I A Likhtarev
V V Chumak
A A Romanyukha
V T Khrouch
Gavrilin YuI
V F Minenko
Author Affiliation
Health and Ecological Assessment Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USA.
Source
Stem Cells. 1997;15 Suppl 2:183-93
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Animals
Child
Fast Neutrons
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Iodine Radioisotopes
Japan
Lymphocytes - radiation effects
Macaca mulatta
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear Warfare
Occupational Exposure
Power Plants
Radiometry
Retrospective Studies
Thermoluminescent Dosimetry
Thyroid Neoplasms - epidemiology
Translocation, Genetic
Ukraine
Abstract
In this article we discuss examples of challenging problems in retrospective dosimetry and describe some promising solutions. The ability to make measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and luminescence techniques promises to provide improved dosimetry for regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation contaminated by radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, it may soon be possible to resolve the large neutron discrepancy in the dosimetry system for Hiroshima through novel measurement techniques that can be used to reconstruct the fast-neutron fluence emitted by the bomb some 51 years ago. Important advances in molecular cytogenetics and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have produced biodosimeters that show potential in retrospective dosimetry. The most promising of these are the frequency of reciprocal translocations measured in chromosomes of blood lymphocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal in tooth enamel.
PubMed ID
9368303 View in PubMed
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Source
Rev Med Virol. 2004 Jul-Aug;14(4):241-54
Publication Type
Article
Author
Vasilii A Lashkevich
Galina A Koroleva
Alexander N Lukashev
Ekaterina V Denisova
Ludmila A Katargina
Author Affiliation
Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides RAMS, Moscow, Russia. vlashk@zmail.ru
Source
Rev Med Virol. 2004 Jul-Aug;14(4):241-54
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Child
Disease Models, Animal
Disease Outbreaks
Enterovirus B, Human - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Enterovirus Infections - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Infant
Macaca mulatta
Russia - epidemiology
Uveitis - epidemiology - virology
Abstract
Enterovirus uveitis (EU) is a new infant eye disease that was first observed in 1980. Three distinct subtypes of human echoviruses, EV19/K, EV11/A and EV11/B, caused five hospital outbreaks of EU in different Siberian cities in 1980-1989, affecting approximately 750 children, predominantly below 1 year of age. Sporadic EU cases were also retrospectively diagnosed in other regions of Russia and in different countries of the Former Soviet Union. The illness was characterised by rapid iris destruction and severe complications, including cataract and glaucoma. The disease has been a subject of intensive studies and was reproduced in lower primates after intraocular inoculation of isolated enterovirus strains. Importantly, prototype EV11 and EV19 strains did not induce notable disease in experimental monkeys. Some of the EU-causing strains were shown to be similar phylogenetically and in their pathogenetic properties to the enterovirus strains associated with multisystem hemorrhagic disease of newborns. In this review we present a summary of the vast epidemiological, virological, clinical and experimental data on this new form of ophthalmic infection.
PubMed ID
15248252 View in PubMed
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Source
Mutat Res. 1999 Dec 6;430(2):203-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-6-1999
Author
I. Thomson
Author Affiliation
Thomson & Nielsen Electronics, 25E Northside Road, Nepean, Ontario, Canada. ithomson@thomson-elec.com
Source
Mutat Res. 1999 Dec 6;430(2):203-9
Date
Dec-6-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Astronauts
Equipment Design
Extraterrestrial Environment
Extravehicular Activity
France
Humans
Macaca mulatta
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Organ Specificity
Radiation - classification
Radiometry - instrumentation
Risk assessment
Russia
Spacecraft - instrumentation
Thermoluminescent Dosimetry
United States
Abstract
Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space.
PubMed ID
10631334 View in PubMed
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[Hepatitis E virus antibodies in the macaques and in the personnel serving the macaques of the Adler apery].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164843
Source
Vopr Virusol. 2007 Jan-Feb;52(1):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Author
L I Korzaia
B A Lapin
V V Keburia
I Ia Lazareva
Source
Vopr Virusol. 2007 Jan-Feb;52(1):36-40
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Zoo - blood
Health Personnel
Hepatitis Antibodies - blood
Hepatitis E - blood - prevention & control
Hepatitis E virus - immunology
Humans
Immunoglobulin M - blood
Macaca fascicularis - blood
Macaca mulatta - blood
Research Personnel
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
There is evidence for the rather high detection rate of antibodies against hepatic E virus (HEV) was rather high in the macaques from the Adler apery in 1999-2005. Anti-HEV was detected in 232 (57.3%) out of 405 examined rhesus macaques (Macaca mulata) and in 16 (16%) out of 100 Java ones (M. fascicularis). The detection rate of anti-HEV ranged from 12.5 to 89.5%% among the rhesus macaques and from 5.9 to 37.5% among the Java ones. Class M anti-HEV was found only in 3 (4.3%) out of 69 Java macaques and in none of the rhesus ones. Of importance are the data of detection of anti-HEV in 3 (7.5%) out of 40 examined employees of the Research Institute of Medical Primatology, all 3 (18.8%) out of 10 employees looking after the monkeys that belonged to the highest-risk group. The epidemiological and epizootological aspects of this infection require further studies.
PubMed ID
17338232 View in PubMed
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25 records – page 1 of 3.