The chromosome dicentric aberrations in the lymphocytes and levels of antibodies to human thyroid microsomal antigen in the serum of the children lived in the area of Bryansk Province suffered from the Chernobyl accident was examined. Correlation between those tests was not estimated: the autoantibodies were revealed in group with dicentrics and without those in 4.0% and 4.5% of cases correspondingly. Antimicrosomal antibodies were revealed more frequently (5.0%) and in higher titers in the children from the more polluted Bryansk Province than in those from Kaluga Province (3.1%). These data can testify about the role of inside radiation of thyroid gland in appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis signs.
Irritable bowel syndrome is observed mostly in Ukrainian children and may be related to adverse health effects as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. The aim of this study was to determine status of T-cell population lymphocytes in children with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. The test population consisted of 95 participants: 75 rural patients aged 4 to 18 who lived in a contaminated area exposed to natural environmental radiation with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (categorized in three groups) and 20 healthy urban participants from Kiev aged 5 to 15 as control group. Internal radiation activity has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed for T-lymphocytes subset such as T-lymphocytes (CD3(+)), T-helper (CD4(+)) and T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) and then CD4/CD8 ratio was calculated. Percentage of CD3(+) and CD4(+) in all study groups decreased significantly in comparison to control group (p
[Analysis of the epidemiological data concerning radiation carcinogenic effects and approaches to the low doses' upper limits determination in the aspect of a threshold of the unhealthy influences of ionizing radiation]
The analysis of the epidemiological data regarding cancer mortality in cohorts of Japanese A-bomb survivors and Chermobyl liquidators exposed to different doses suggests that there are good reasons for recognizing the threshold of the radiocarcinogenic effect in the region of about 200 Gy (mSv). The analysis of solid cancer mortality in Japanese cohort, which exceeded the expected one in a dose diapason of 5-200 mSv, revealed a (quasi) plateau in a dose-effect curve and led to the conclusion that the nature of the overshoot is non-radiogenic. The analysis of supposedly dose dependent leucosis incidence in the limited low dose diapason in the Chernobyl cohort showed that the real coefficient of the excess absolute or relative radiation risk could not be received in the case because the larger part curve was placed under the control level. In supporting the principle of single hit in a cell nucleus as a base of microdosimetric determination of low radiation doses, the approach to objective delimitation between low, intermediate and high doses regions has been proposed. The low doses upper limit of sparse ionizing radiation for cell nucleus of 8 microns in diameter has been evaluated as 0.65 mGy. It can serve for evaluation of the dose rate threshold regarding the safe chronic radiation levels in the environment.
In this study, the frequency and spectrum of chromosomal aberrations were analysed in samples of peripheral blood from 372 (mean age = 12.24 ± 2.60 years old) long-term resident children in a boarding school (Tashtagol city, Kemerovo Region, Russian Federation) under conditions of high exposure to radon and its decay products. As a control group, we used blood samples from people living in Zarubino village (Kemerovo Region, Russian Federation). We discovered that the average frequencies of single and double fragments, chromosomal exchanges, total number of aberrations, chromatid type, chromosome type and all types of aberrations were significantly increased in the exposed group. This is evidence of considerable genotoxicity to children living under conditions of high exposure to radon compared to children living under ecological conditions without increased radon radiation.
The genotypic associations of the frequencies of spontaneous and radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes were studied to develop genetic tests for elevated and reduced radiosensitivity. Cytogenetic analysis and genotyping (19 sites of detoxification and DNA repair genes) were carried out for a sample of Chernobyl cleanup workers (n = 83) and for a homogenous control sample of volunteers (n = 99). In both groups, the frequency of chromosome-type aberrations proved to be elevated in carriers of minor alleles in the XPD gene (sites T2251G (Lys751Gln) and G862A (Asp312Asn)) and a combination of GSTM1-GSTT1-positive genotypes. The polymorphism of these gene did not affect the frequency of gamma-radiation-induced aberrations in the controls (1 Gy in vitro), which was associated with the alleles of the OGG1, XRCC1, and CYP1A1 genes. Thus, the frequencies of spontaneous and in vitro induced chromosome-type aberrations are associated with the alleles of different xenobiotic detoxification and DNA repair genes. At the same time, among the cleanup workers (irradiated in vivo), the elevated frequency of aberrations was observed in the carriers of the genotypes associated with the higher rate of spontaneous (but not induced in vitro) cytogenetic damages in the controls.
When the adaptive response (AR) was studied on human blood lymphocytes, a new dependence was discovered. This dependence defines the direction of the radiosensitivity change after a low dose of irradiation. Using micronucleus (MN) test with cytochalasin B the dependence between the cell reaction after low level irradiation and radiosensititvity (the effect after irradiation at the dose of 1 Gy) was observed. The negative correlation between the frequency of AR manifestation, sensibilization, intermediate links and radiosensitivity was discovered. This regularity is observed in the population of Moscow, Obninsk, Chelyabinsk region (irradiated and control) inhabitants, Chernobyl accident liquidators, Moscow children, in individuals with Hodgkin's lymphoma before and during treatment. The negative correlation is also noted by AR determination with two irradiation schemes: in one or two different cell cycle phases (G1-G1 or G1-G2). Similar links are observed using the chromosome methaphase analysis (the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations). So, the results of the experiments conducted allow us to suppose that the connection between the cell radiosensitivity and a different type of reaction after low dose irradiation--from AR to the increase in radiosensitivity (sensibilization) is a general regularity. AR is induced by low level irradiation and high cell radiosensitivity, while sensibilization is induced by low radiosensitivity. Since AR and sensibilization can be induced not only by irradiation, but many different chemicals and physical agents, the described correlation can be observed in the case of different exposures. Cellular AR and sensibilization are integral indexes depending on many genetic and epigenetic factors, as well as on the initiation of a large number of events. However, the discovered mechanisms of interrelations are still difficult to explain.
Sixteen people (15 from Byelorussia, one from Kiev) possibly exposed to radioactivity released by the Chernobyl accident were investigated for chromosome aberrations induced in lymphocytes. Statistically significant increases of the yield of dicentric chromosomes were observed in five people.
The analysis of plutonium production factors has been carried out by using two methodical approaches: assessment of chromosomal aberrations level in routine and G-banded metaphases and molecular-cytogenetic investigation of aneugenic/clastogenic damages in cytokinesis-block binuclear lymphocytes by FISH with centromere specific DNA probes. The obtaining data point out for the first time about both aneugenic and clastogenic influences of incorporated 239Pu with activity range from 0.37 to 6.95 kBq. Correlation analysis of chromosome aberrations with cytome abnormalities allowed finding significant connection between number parameters of metaphase and interphase approaches. The results of this study support the suggestion that aberrant chromosomes are involved preferable in aneugenic events. The FISH technique in binucleated cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes allows extending of detecting spectrum of chromosome damages and glance of aneugenic mechanisms. Correlations between metaphase and interphase-FISH results point out a high sensitivity of FISH cytome assay, which could be used as an independent test for detection both clastogenic and aneugenic environment influences.
Four children groups with and without thyroid pathology born to fathers exposed to ionizing irradiation in 1986 during Chernobyl accident as liquidators as well as residents of territory with radioactive contamination have been cytogenetically observed. The frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied using two-termed cultivation (during 48 and 144 hours). Under the short-term incubation the observed groups did not significantly differ on the mean-group integral cytogenetic parameters which corresponded to age norm, but in progeny of parents from radionuclide contaminated territory the increased level of chromosome type exchanges has been revealed. In long-termed lymphocyte cultures of children with chronic thyroiditis the significantly increased cytogenetic effects of both chromatid (single fragments) and chromosome types (abnormal monocentrics, centric rings) have been established. The data received testified the reality of the transmissible chromosome instability phenomenon in progeny of irradiated parents and confirmed the possibility of its expression in consequent mitoses.