We assessed the major lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood, thyroid ultrasonography, levels of serum autoantibodies to thyroglobulin (AbTg), thyroid hormones, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in 53 children without any chronic diseases living continuously around Chernobyl. The subjects ranged in age from 7 to 14 years and had different doses of 131I to their thyroid. Healthy children living on noncontaminated areas were assessed as controls. The majority of children with doses of 131I had normal levels of thyroid hormones. However, the percentages of positive sera for AbTg, TSH levels, ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities, and abnormal echogenicity were significantly higher in children with doses of 131I than in controls. The dose of 131I to thyroid correlated positively with serum AbTg levels, percentage of CD3+CD4+ cells, and CD3+CD4+/CD3+CD8+ cell ratio and negatively with number of CD3+CD8+ and CD3-/CD16, CD56+ cells. Thus, our study demonstrates an association between dose of 131I and autoimmune thyroid disorders in this population of children.
In this study, we examined the acute effects of submaximal resistance exercise on immunological and hormonal parameters in 7 resistance-trained and 10 non-resistance-trained males. The participants, who were aged 29.5 +/- 7.1 years (mean +/- s), performed submaximal resistance exercise at 75% of their one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before, during, immediately after, and 30, 60 and 120 min after exercise and analysed for leukocyte subpopulations and stress hormones. Total leukocytes, neutrophils and monocytes increased during exercise, reaching their maximum 2 h after exercise. Lymphocytes increased during exercise, T-helper cells returned to resting values after exercise, and natural killer cells and T-suppressor cells decreased below resting values. The CD4/CD8 ratio decreased during exercise but increased during recovery. The resistance-trained participants tended to have lower T-helper cell counts before, during and immediately after exercise and a lower CD4/CD8 ratio during recovery than the non-resistance-trained participants. Plasma cortisol correlated positively with leukocytes during exercise (r = 0.572, P
An obvious correlation between the type of reaction manifested by peripheral blood lymphocytes to low dose irradiation in vitro (adaptive potential), the RBM cell composition (during the period of the major exposure), and the peripheral blood cell composition (at a late time period coincident with the studies of induced radioresistance) has been found in the Techa riverside residents in the later periods after the onset of a long-term low-dose rate radiation exposure (55-60 years later) within a range of individual red bone marrow doses from 0.01 to 1.79 Gy. The nature of these dependences observed in chronically exposed individuals differs from that revealed in the controls. It can be suggested based on the results of the study that the capacity for the adaptive response shown by peripheral blood lymphocytes donated by exposed persons in the remote period after exposure can be regarded as a biological marker of the functional state of the hemopoietic stem cell pool.
The results of the study of the parameters of the immune system in persons suffering from frequent infections, bacteriocarriers and persons with nonspecific infections are presented. The study revealed that T-cell deficiency of the 2nd and 3rd degrees could be regarded as the universal marker of decreased immune reactiveness. Sodium nucleinate was found to be capable of stimulating the T-cell element of immunity and antibody formation, which made it possible to achieve a considerable decrease in morbidity rate. Sodium nucleinate was shown to be highly effective in the prophylaxis of acute respiratory viral infections, carrier state and in the sanitation of purulent foci of infection.
The benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV infection are well documented, but concerns regarding access and adherence to HAART are growing. We evaluated virological responses to HAART among HIV-1 infected patients who were injection drug users (IDUs) in a population-based setting where HIV/AIDS care is delivered free of charge.
We evaluated previously untreated HIV-1 infected men and women who initiated HAART between Aug. 1, 1996, and July 31, 2000, and who were followed until Mar. 31, 2002, in a province-wide HIV treatment program. We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression in our evaluation of time to suppression (i.e., less than 500 copies/mL) and rebound (i.e., 500 copies/mL or more) of plasma HIV-1 RNA, with patients stratified according to whether or not they had a history of injection drug use.
Overall, 1422 patients initiated HAART during the study period, of whom 359 (25.2%) were IDUs. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the cumulative suppression rate at 12 months after initiation of HAART was 70.8% for non-IDUs and 51.4% for IDUs (p 0.1).
Non-IDUs and IDUs had similar rates of HIV-1 RNA suppression and rebound after the initiation of HAART, once lower levels of adherence were taken into account. Nevertheless, the lower virological response rates among IDUs suggest that, unless interventions are undertaken to improve adherence, these patients may experience elevated rates of disease progression and use of medical services in our setting.
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Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown.
We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank.
We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical cytologies. During the different calendar intervals throughout the study period between 29-46% of WLWH followed the HIV cervical screening guidelines. Adjusted OR's of attendance to the general population screening program for WLWH aged 30, 40 and 50 years, compared to controls, were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.55-0.80) and 0.84 (0.61-1.15). Predictors of attendance to the HIV cervical screening program were a CD4 count?>?350 cells/µL and HIV RNA?
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Studies on patient mobility have focused on patients who become lost-to-follow-up (LTFU). Much less is known about patients who move with a planned transfer of care from one HIV center to another. We assess disease progression in patients who moved and then returned to our care compared with patients remaining or were LTFU.
We identified which patients left our HIV care program between January 01,2000, to January 01,2008, defined how they left (either moved or LTFU), and then determined the health status of returning patients. We examined the impact of the move on their health by comparing clinical measurements (eg, CD4, new AIDS) at their departure and on return.
Forty-four percent of all patients left care; 38% of these returned. In contrast to those remaining in local care whose CD4 counts climbed, "moved" patients exhibited deterioration in both CD4 counts and incident AIDS comparable to LFTU patients. Only 1 in 3 patients who moved had our medical records requested by a new HIV center.
We suspect that despite forward planning, a move may result in potential serious interruptions and/or disengagements of care. The potential harmful health effects can in some be equivalent becoming LTFU. Recognizing and addressing the potential disruption in care from a planned move may be of value in improving outcomes.
Irritable bowel syndrome is observed mostly in Ukrainian children and may be related to adverse health effects as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. The aim of this study was to determine status of T-cell population lymphocytes in children with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. The test population consisted of 95 participants: 75 rural patients aged 4 to 18 who lived in a contaminated area exposed to natural environmental radiation with clinical symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (categorized in three groups) and 20 healthy urban participants from Kiev aged 5 to 15 as control group. Internal radiation activity has been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed for T-lymphocytes subset such as T-lymphocytes (CD3(+)), T-helper (CD4(+)) and T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) and then CD4/CD8 ratio was calculated. Percentage of CD3(+) and CD4(+) in all study groups decreased significantly in comparison to control group (p
To examine the distribution of AIDS-defining illnesses among Danish AIDS patients, data on 687 AIDS patients diagnosed in the period from 1980 to 1990 (93% of all reported cases in the period) were collected. The most frequent AIDS-defining illness was Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia followed by candida oesophagitis and Kaposis sarcoma. The proportion of homo/bisexual men presenting with Kaposis sarcoma as the initial AIDS-defining illness declined over time. Patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis had higher CD4 cell counts than patients presenting with other illnesses. Cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and atypical mycobacteriosis were seen more frequently after the time of the AIDS diagnosis, and a low CD4 cell count at time of the AIDS diagnosis was a significant predictor for the development of these opportunistic infections during follow-up. Danish AIDS patients present with a wide spectrum of HIV-related illnesses, reflecting their exposure to opportunistic microorganisms and the degree of immune deficiency. The pattern of HIV-related illnesses is changing over time, and therefore continuous surveillance is needed to optimize therapeutic and prophylactic regimens.
The survival pattern was studied for 687 Danish AIDS patients (93% of notified cases in the study period) who were diagnosed with AIDS during the period from 1980 to 1990. The median survival was 17 months. Factors significantly associated with a shortened survival were transfusion-acquired HIV infection, age > 40 years, year of diagnosis before 1987, and the presence of either disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium-complex, Cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis or malignant lymphoma at time of the AIDS diagnosis. There was also a significant association between survival and CD4 cell count at time of AIDS diagnosis. Patients who had CD4 cell counts above 200 x 10(6)/l had twice as long a survival as patients who had CD4 cell counts less than 50 x 10(6)/l. The prognosis of Danish AIDS patients remains poor. The most important determinant of survival time appears to be the degree of immune deficiency at time of diagnosis.