A widespread outbreak of tularemia in Sweden in 2000 was investigated in a case-control study in which 270 reported cases of tularemia were compared with 438 controls. The outbreak affected parts of Sweden where tularemia had hitherto been rare, and these "emergent" areas were compared with the disease-endemic areas. Multivariate regression analysis showed mosquito bites to be the main risk factor, with an odds ratio (OR) of 8.8. Other risk factors were owning a cat (OR 2.5) and farm work (OR 3.2). Farming was a risk factor only in the disease-endemic area. Swollen lymph nodes and wound infections were more common in the emergent area, while pneumonia was more common in the disease-endemic area. Mosquito bites appear to be important in transmission of tularemia. The association between cat ownership and disease merits further investigation.
To select patients for neoadjuvant therapy in colon cancer, there is a need to improve pre-therapeutic locoregional staging. There are now data showing that the TN stage can be adequately assessed by preoperative CT in dedicated centres. In Sweden the use of preoperative CT of the abdomen for staging of the primary tumour is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the preoperatively reported radiological TN stage correlates with the histopathological TN stage in an entire population.
Data were collected on the preoperative cTN stage according to the radiologist and postoperative pTN stage according to the pathologist on all patients operated on for colon cancer in Sweden 2007-2010. The correlation between cTN stage and pTN stage was calculated using kappa statistics.
T stage was compared in 4373 patients with cT and pT stage. The correlation coefficient was 0.44, indicating fair agreement. The cN and pN correlation coefficient was 0.28, indicating a slight correlation. There was no difference in correlation related to age, gender, tumour location, body mass index or emergent vs elective surgery. A slight difference was seen between different geographical regions.
Preoperative CT in an unselected population does not result in an accurate cTN staging as previously reported from dedicated centres. To achieve adequate preoperative cTN staging nationally, the education of radiologists and optimization of the radiological method will be necessary.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv(16)(p13q22) or the variant t(16;16)(p13;q22), is strongly associated with the FAB subtype M4Eo. A high incidence of CNS involvement was reported in the 1980s, but otherwise little is known about the pattern of extamedullary leukemia (EML) manifestations in this AML type. We have compiled clinical and cytogenetic data on 27 consecutive AML cases with inv(16)/t(16;16) from southern Sweden. In general, these AMLs displayed the clinical features that have previously been described as characteristic for this disease entity: low median age, hyperleukocytosis, M4Eo morphology, and a favorable prognosis. However, CNS leukemia was only seen in relapse in one patient diagnosed in 1980, whereas the most common EML manifestation in our series was lymphadenopathy (5/27, 19%), most often cervical with or without gross tonsillar enlargement. A review of previously published, clinically informative cases corroborates that lymphadenopathy, with preference for the cervical region, is the most common EML at diagnosis in inv(16)-positive AML (58/175, 33%). CNS leukemia, on the other hand, has been reported in only 17% of the cases, mostly in the relapse setting, with a diminishing frequency over time, possibly due to protective effects of high-dose cytarabine. Other reported EML sites include the scalp, ovaries, and the intestine. Cervicotonsillar EML was in our series associated with a shorter duration of first remission, (P
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is responsible for one of every nine deaths from cancer in Canada. In this review epidemiologic factors are considered and current staging systems are outlined. The American Urological System is recommended for staging because of its ability to reflect changes in the understanding of the biologic behaviour of this neoplasm. The adoption of a quantitative grading scheme is suggested to complement the information obtained from the staging assessment. The routes of spread of this disease, along with the procedures used to assess metastatic involvement, are described. Immunologic methods for the analysis of prostatic acid phosphatase have been shown to be superior to the enzymatic methods previously used, and the role of the new techniques is discussed. Emphasis is placed on radiotherapy and endocrine therapy for the treatment of this neoplasm, and the concept of withholding endocrine therapy until symptoms appear is discussed. Potential future developments in this field are considered.
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The aim of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen (TAM) in postmenopausal patients with high-risk breast cancer. The primary surgical treatment was total mastectomy with axillary sampling. There were 1,650 eligible patients; 829 were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and 821, to receive RT + TAM (10 mg three times daily for 1 yr). The 2 groups were identical with respect to age, tumor size, number of positive lymph nodes, degree of anaplasia, and estrogen and progesterone receptor content. Overall recurrence-free survival at 6 years was 39% in the RT group, compared to 48% in the RT + TAM group (P = 0.0008), but there was no significant difference in survival (P = 0.14). From retrospective analyses of recurrence-free survival according to prognostic variables, it appears that 4 subgroups of patients benefited from adjuvant TAM: those less than 69 years of age, those with 4 or more positive nodes, those with grade I-II tumors, and those with high estrogen receptor values (greater than 100 fmol/mg cytosol protein).
A retrospective analysis of the adverse reactions reported between 1979 and 1991, in the 139,000 children under six years of age vaccinated in Sweden with the Danish BCG vaccine, strain Copenhagen 1331, showed an incidence of 1.9 per 1000 vaccinated children. Regional lymphoglandular swellings and/or abscesses were most commonly reported in 1.4 per 1000. Serious, disseminated, BCG infections developed in four infants vaccinated neonatally. Three of the infants suffered from severe, combined, immunodeficiency syndrome, undiagnosed at the time of vaccination. The incidence of severe, combined, immunodeficiency syndrome was higher in the BCG-vaccinated population (4 per 100,000 infants vaccinated within a year of their births), compared with all newborns in Sweden (1 per 100,000). The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 2.4 months for the seven non-BCG-vaccinated infants versus 1.3 months for the four BCG-vaccinated ones, while the immunodeficiency syndrome was diagnosed at an average age of 7.6 months in those who were not vaccinated versus 5.3 months in those BCG-vaccinated. It is recommended that the selective BCG vaccination of infants at high risk of exposure to tuberculosis should be postponed to six months of age to reduce the risk of inoculating infants suffering from immunodeficiency syndromes.
A three-year-old-boy with generalized Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is presented. The child died of progressive pulmonary insufficiency on the eighteenth day of the course of his illness, the tenth hospital day. On postmortem examination diffuse KS infiltration was observed in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, lymph nodes, liver, spleen and thymus. The patient was considered to be a case of KS unrelated to AIDS because of his negative HTLV-III antibody and epidemiologic characteristics, and therefore was believed to have primary aggressive KS.
To examine how breast cancers found by mammographic screening differ from those found outside screening.
Comparative cohort study.
Turku, southwestern Finland.
126 women aged 40-74 years with breast cancer detected during the first round of mammographic screening in 1987-90 and 125 women within the same age range with breast cancer detected outside screening during the same period.
Primary tumour size, axillary nodal status, histological features, oestrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations, ploidy, and S phase fraction.
Compared with the controls women with cancers detected by screening had a smaller primary tumour (57 (46%) screened v 11 (10%) controls had tumours less than or equal to 11 mm in diameter, p less than 0.0001), and less often had axillary nodal metastases (104 (83%) screened v 71 (57%) controls node negative, p less than 0.0001). After adjustment for the smaller size of the primary tumour compared with control cancers, those cancers detected by screening were less likely to have axillary nodal metastases (odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.84), poor histological differentiation (0.20, 0.08 to 0.49), high mitotic counts (0.38, 0.15 to 0.97), tumour necrosis (0.45, 0.22 to 0.93) or to be of the ductal histological type (0.46, 0.22 to 0.95). They had low oestrogen receptor (0.29, 0.12 to 0.70) and progesterone receptor (0.35, 0.17 to 0.92) concentrations less often and had smaller S phase fractions (0.72, 0.55 to 0.96) than control cancers.
Even after adjustment for the smaller size of screen detected breast cancers, their histological and cytometric features suggest low malignant potential. They may also be less likely to metastasise to axillary lymph nodes than cancers found outside screening.
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The effectivity of the treatment of malignant adrenal tumors (MAT) depends on primary complete tumor resection with its regional metastases (RM). The possible regional metastases of malignant adrenal tumors in 257 patients have been studied. One third of the patients were diagnosed with regional metastases. Practically, almost all the patients had malignant adrenal tumors metastasizing lymphogenically. It was noted that independently of the tumors' localisation, morphological structure, the regional metastases more often were found in lymph nodes of the renal hilus, paranephral and paraaortical cellular tissue. Consequently, lymph nodes of the renal hilus, paranephral and paraaortical cellular tissue as well as of back muscle should be revised during radical operations in patients with malignant adrenal tumors.