We describe a retrospective study of 42 patients admitted to Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital with suspect postpolio syndrome over a period of two years. The patients were 32 females and 10 males aged 28-74 years (mean 54 years). 29 were married or cohabitant, 31 had children, and 20 were in paid employment. The mean age at onset of polio was 12 years, with an average interval of 36 years between onset of polio and onset of new problems. The mean duration of new health problems was seven years. The most common such problems were pain in muscles and joints, general fatigue and new weakness of the muscles. 28 of the patients needed personal assistance to carry out everyday activities. 33 had braces, crutches or wheelchair for ambulation. Lung function was moderately reduced and physical working capacity was severely reduced. Physiotherapy, ergotherapy and technical aids were provided for 38 of the patients, 16 received assistance to organizing social support or help at home, 13 were helped to make practical changes in their homes, and eight were provided with a wheelchair. According to this study, most patients with the postpolio syndrome need interdisciplinary evaluation and management in a rehabilitation hospital.
A 49 year old previously healthy smoker was diagnosed with a giant bulla in his right lung, following a history of dry cough, repeated upper airway infections and increasing dyspnea for several years. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of a giant bulla in the right inferior lobe and several smaller bullae in the right superior lobe. The giant bulla was 17 cm in diameter, occupying more than half of the right hemithorax. On spirometry a moderate restrictive and a mild obstructive pattern was observed. Lung volume was measured with two different techniques, nitrogen washout and plethysmography, with volume of the bullae estimated at 2.9 L, similar to the 3.2 L determined by CT. The patient underwent thoracotomy, where the giant bulla together with the inferior lobe were removed with lobectomy and the small bullae in the superior lobe with wedge resection. Five months postoperatively the patient is in good health and is back at work. Postoperatively significant improvements in spirometry values and lung volume measurements have been documented. This case demonstrates that giant bullae can be successfully managed with surgical resection and their size can be determined by different techniques, including lung volume measurements and chest CT.
BACKGROUND: Cyclic opening and closing of lung units during tidal breathing may be an important cause of iatrogenic lung injury. We hypothesized that airway closure is uncommon in children with healthy lungs when inspiratory pressures are kept low, but paradoxically may occur when inspiratory pressures are increased. METHODS: Elastic equilibrium volume (EEV) and closing capacity (CC) were measured with a tracer gas (SF(6)) technique in 11 anesthetized, muscle-relaxed, endotracheally intubated and artificially ventilated healthy children, aged 0.6-13 years. Airway closing was studied in a randomized order at two inflation pressures, +20 or +30 cmH(2)O, and CC and CC/EEV were calculated from the plots obtained when the lungs were exsufflated to -20 cmH(2)O. (CC/EEV >1 indicates that airway closure might occur during tidal breathing). Furthermore, a measure of uneven ventilation, multiple breath alveolar mixing efficiency (MBAME), was obtained. RESULTS: Airway closure within the tidal volume (CC/EEV >1) was observed in four and eight children (not significant, NS) after 20 and 30 cmH(2)O inflation, respectively. However, CC(30)/EEV was >CC(20)/EEV in all children (P
OBJECTIVES: Powder painting is an alternative to solvent-based spray painting. Powder paints may contain organic acid anhydrides (OAAs), which are irritants to the airways and may cause sensitisation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and immunological response among powder painters and to describe the exposure to OAAs. METHODS: In all, 205 subjects in 32 enterprises participated: 93 exposed and 26 formerly exposed workers in 25 powder paint shops and 86 unexposed workers. They completed a questionnaire about working conditions and symptoms and took part in a medical examination, which included a lung function test. Urine samples, for determination of two OAAs, and blood samples, for analysis of specific antibodies against the OAAs, were taken. In addition, 33 paint samples were analysed for nine OAAs. RESULTS: The powder painters reported more work-related respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects did. The prevalence of three or more symptoms was 24% in subjects with low exposure, 44% in highly exposed individuals, 46% in formerly exposed subjects and 19% in unexposed workers. Asthma symptoms were frequent, 7%, 40%, 15% and 2%, respectively. Regression analyses of the lung volumes did not show any influence of exposure. IgG, but not IgE, against the OAAs and metabolites of OAAs was found in some subjects, but no associations with the exposure could be observed. OAAs were found in only small amounts in the paint samples. CONCLUSIONS: The exposure to organic acid anhydrides was estimated to be low, and yet, IgG antibodies to OAA were observed in some subjects. The prevalence of work-related symptoms from the eyes and the airways was relatively high among the powder painters, and these symptoms, but not the lung volumes, were clearly related to exposure. The symptoms were probably caused by irritative properties of the powder paint dust.
Rehabilitation programmes for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are established in many countries. In this paper a new rehabilitation programme at Ullevål University Hospital is described and evaluated. We compared patients' (N = 80) use of hospital inpatient services the year before and the year after attending a rehabilitation course. We also compared patients' self-assessed health status before and six and 12 months after rehabilitation using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The percentage of patients needing hospitalization per year was reduced from 45% before the programme to 22% afterwards. There was no change in the total number of hospitalizations or in the number of days spent in hospital. Self-assessed health status had improved. The results are in accordance with reports from similar rehabilitation programmes in other countries.
Geilomo hospital for children with asthma and allergy is situated 800 m above sea level in a non-polluted area in the central part of Norway. 31 children who were admitted to this hospital from different parts of Norway (mostly from the main cities) were studied for six weeks. They underwent physical training and daily measurements were taken of lung function and the effect of bronchodilators. The bronchial responsiveness of the children improved significantly from week 1 to week 6, as measured by reduction in lung function after sub-maximal running on a treadmill. There was significant improvement in daily symptom score, and in degree of obstruction as shown by physical examination. The children's improvement was probably the result of a stay in a mountainous area with very little air pollution or allergens, combined with regular planned physical activity, and regular medication and surveillance.
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational, controlled study. OBJECTIVES: To survey breathing patterns during breathing at rest, ordinary deep breathing (DB), positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and inspiratory resistance-positive expiratory pressure (IR-PEP) among individuals with a cervical spinal cord lesion (SCL) compared with able-bodied controls. SETTING: Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. METHOD: Participants consisted of 20 persons with a complete SCL at the C5-C8 level (at least 1 year postinjury) and 20 matched, able-bodied controls. Breathing patterns and static lung volumes were measured using a body plethysmograph. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, breathing patterns at rest among the people with tetraplegia were characterised by a decreased tidal volume, stable respiratory rate and total cycle duration resulting in decreased mean inspiratory and expiratory flow, and alveolar ventilation. All volume and flow parameters increased except respiratory rate, which decreased during DB and PEP. During IR-PEP, tidal volume increased less compared to PEP, and combined with a decreased respiratory rate the alveolar ventilation was lower than during breathing at rest. The functional residual capacity increased during PEP and IR-PEP in people with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION: DB exercises with or without resistance during expiration or the whole breathing cycle affect the breathing pattern in persons with tetraplegia. DB was superior in increasing volumes and flow. PEP and IR-PEP increased FRC but IR-PEP decreased volumes and flows. However, large interindividual differences in the SCL group indicate the need for caution in generalising the results. SPONSORSHIP: This work was supported in part by grants from the Memorial Foundation of the Swedish Association of registered Physiotherapists and the Association of Cancer and Road Accident Victims.
To investigate the development of lung function in HIV-infected patients.
In a prospective cohort study, 88 HIV-infected patients had a lung function test performed and 63 patients (72%) had their LFT repeated with a median follow-up period of 4.4 years. Forty-eight per cent were smokers, and at the re-examination, 97% were on combination antiretroviral therapy.
Carbon monoxide diffusion capacity was reduced and decreased over time in both smokers and non-smokers. Alveolar volume decreased and forced vital capacity increased similarly in both smokers and non-smokers. No changes were observed in forced expiratory volume or peak flow, but smokers had reduced values compared with those of the non-smokers at both examinations. FEV1/FVC was reduced especially in smokers and declined in both smokers and non-smokers.
Carbon monoxide diffusion capacity is reduced in HIV-infected patients and seems to decline over time. Additionally, signs of obstructive lung disease are present in HIV-infected patients and seem to increase over time, although only modestly.
Copenhagen Studies on Asthma in Childhood, The Danish Paediatrics Asthma Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Gentofte Hospital, Ledreborg Alle 34, DK-2900 Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark. Bisgaard@copsac.dk
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Feb 1;179(3):179-85
RATIONALE: An asthma predisposition locus on chromosome 17q12-q21 has recently been replicated in different ethnic groups. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the asthma and atopy phenotypes in early childhood that associate with the 17q12-21 locus. METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs7216389, was genotyped in 376 of 411 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) birth cohort born to mothers with asthma together with 305 mothers and 224 fathers. Nineteen additional SNPs in the region were genotyped in the children. Investigator-diagnosed clinical endpoints were based on diary cards and clinic visits every 6 months and at acute symptoms from birth. Lung function, bronchial responsiveness, and sensitization were tested longitudinally from early infancy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: rs7216389 was significantly associated with the development of wheeze (hazard ratio 1.64 [1.05-2.59], P value = 0.03), asthma (hazard ratio, 1.88 [1.15-3.07], P = 0.01), and acute severe exacerbations (hazard ratio 2.66 [1.58-4.48], P value = 0.0002). The effect on wheeze and asthma was observed for early onset but not late onset of disease. The increased risk of exacerbations persisted from 1 to 6 years of age (incidence ratio 2.48 [1.42-4.32], P value = 0.001), and increased bronchial responsiveness was present in infancy and at 4 years of age, but not at 6 years. In contrast, rs7216389 conferred no risk of eczema, rhinitis, or allergic sensitization. CONCLUSIONS: Variation at the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus was associated with approximately twofold increased risk of recurrent wheeze, asthma, asthma exacerbations, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness from early infancy to school age but without conferring risk of eczema, rhinitis, or allergic sensitization. These longitudinal clinical data show this locus to be an important genetic determinant of nonatopic asthma in children.