BACKGROUND: Self-selection may compromise cost-effectiveness of screening programs. We hypothesized that nonparticipants have generally higher morbidity and mortality than participants. METHODS: A Swedish population-based random sample of 1,986 subjects ages 59 to 61 years was invited to sigmoidoscopy screening and followed up for 9 years by means of multiple record linkages to health and population registers. Gender-adjusted cancer incidence rate ratio (IRR) and overall and disease group-specific and mortality rate ratio (MRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated for nonparticipants relative to participants. Cancer and mortality rates were also estimated relative to the age-matched, gender-matched, and calendar period-matched Swedish population using standardized incidence ratios and standardized mortality ratios. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent participated. The incidence of colorectal cancer (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-5.9), other gastrointestinal cancer (IRR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.6-12.8), lung cancer (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-5.9), and smoking-related cancer overall (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.7-2.5) tended to be increased among nonparticipants relative to participants. Standardized incidence ratios for most of the studied cancers tended to be >1.0 among nonparticipants and
The purpose of the study was to investigate the prognosis for patients treated for lung cancer by operative resection in the Copenhagen area. Ninety-four consecutively operated patients were followed prospectively for ten years. Seventy-one percent of the patients had been operated radically. The five- and ten-year survival for this group was respectively 46 and 27%. All non-radically operated patients were dead after four years. The postoperative mortality and long-term survival correspond to international results. Type of cancer and mode of operation did not affect survival in the radically operated patients.
A cohort of some 11,000 men born 1891-1920 and employed for at least one month in the chrysotile mines and mills of Quebec, was established in 1966 and has been followed ever since. Of the 5351 men surviving into 1976, only 16 could not be traced; 2508 were still alive in 1989, and 2827 had died; by the end of 1992 a further 698 were known to have died, giving an overall mortality of almost 80%. This paper presents the results of analysis of mortality for the period 1976 to 1988 inclusive, obtained by the subject-years method, with Quebec mortality for reference. In many respects the standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) 20 years or more after first employment were similar to those for the period 1951-75--namely, all causes 1.07 (1951-75, 1.09); heart disease 1.02 (1.04); cerebrovascular disease 1.06 (1.07); external causes 1.17 (1.17). The SMR for lung cancer, however, rose from 1.25 to 1.39 and deaths from mesothelioma increased from eight (10 before review) to 25; deaths from respiratory tuberculosis fell from 57 to five. Among men whose exposure by age 55 was at least 300 million particles per cubic foot x years (mpcf.y), the SMR (all causes) was elevated in the two main mining regions, Asbestos and Thetford Mines, and for the small factory in Asbestos; so were the SMRs for lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease other than pneumoconiosis. Except for lung cancer, however, there was little convincing evidence of gradients over four classes of exposure, divided at 30, 100, and 300 mpcf.y. Over seven narrower categories of exposure up to 300 mpcf.y the SMR for lung cancer fluctuated around 1.27 with no indication of trend, but increased steeply above that level. Mortality form pneumoconiosis was strongly related to exposure, and the trend for mesothelioma was not dissimilar. Mortality generally was related systematically to cigarette smoking habit, recorded in life from 99% of survivors into 1976; smokers of 20 or more cigarettes a day had the highest SMRs not only for lung cancer but also for all causes, cancer of the stomach, pancreas, and larynx, and ischaemic heart disease. For lung cancer SMRs increased fivefold with smoking, but the increase with dust exposure was comparatively slight for non-smokers, lower again for ex-smokers, and negligible for smokers of at least 20 cigarettes a day; thus the asbestos-smoking interaction was less than multiplicative. Of the 33 deaths from mesothelioma in the cohort to date, 28 were in miners and millers and five were in employees of a small asbestos products factory where commercial amphiboles had also been used. Preliminary analysis also suggest that the risk of mesothelioma was higher in the mines and mills at Thetford Mines than in those at Asbestos. More detailed studies of these differences and of exposure-response relations for lung cancer are under way.
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To assess lung function, gas exchange, exercise capacity, and right-sided heart hemodynamics, including pulmonary artery pressure, in patients long term after pneumonectomy.
Among 523 consecutive patients who underwent pneumonectomy for lung cancer between January 1992 and September 2001, 117 were alive in 2006 and 100 were included in the study. During a 1-day period, each patient had complete medical history, chest radiographs, pulmonary function studies, resting arterial blood gas analysis, 6-minute walk test, and Doppler echocardiography.
Most patients (N = 73) had no or only minimal dyspnea. On the basis of predicted values, functional losses in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were 38% ± 18% and 31% ± 24%, respectively, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity decreased by 31% ± 18%. There was a significant correlation between preoperative and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is predominantly a disease of the elderly. Retrospective analyses of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group JBR.10 trial and the Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation (LACE) meta-analysis suggest that the elderly benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. However, the elderly were under-represented in these studies, raising concerns regarding the reproducibility of the study results in clinical practice.
By using the Ontario Cancer Registry, we identified 6,304 patients with NSCLC who were treated with surgical resection from 2001 to 2006. Registry data were linked to electronic treatment records. Uptake of chemotherapy was compared across age groups: younger than 70, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, and = 80 years. As a proxy of survival benefit from chemotherapy, we compared survival of patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2006 with survival of those diagnosed from 2001 to 2003. Hospitalization rates within 6 to 24 weeks of surgery served as a proxy of severe chemotherapy-related toxicity.
In all, 2,763 (43.8%) of 6,304 surgical patients were elderly (age = 70 years). Uptake of adjuvant chemotherapy in the elderly increased from 3.3% (2001 to 2003) to 16.2% (2004 to 2006). Among evaluable elderly patients, 70% received cisplatin and 28% received carboplatin-based regimens. Requirements for dose adjustments or drug substitutions were similar across age groups. Hospitalization rates within 6 to 24 weeks of surgery were similar across age groups (28.0% for patients age
Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a public health concern which could have associated oesophageal complications, including adenocarcinoma, and possibly also head-and-neck and lung cancers. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reflux increases all-cause and cancer-specific mortalities in an unselected cohort.
The Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT), a Norwegian population-based cohort study, was used to identify individuals with and without reflux in 1995-1997 and 2006-2008, with follow-up until 2014. All-cause mortality and cancer-specific mortality were assessed from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry and Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate HRs with 95% CIs for mortality with adjustments for potential confounders.
We included 4758 participants with severe reflux symptoms and 51 381 participants without reflux symptoms, contributing 60 323 and 747 239 person-years at risk, respectively. Severe reflux was not associated with all-cause mortality, overall cancer-specific mortality or mortality in cancer of the head-and-neck or lung. However, for men with severe reflux a sixfold increase in oesophageal adenocarcinoma-specific mortality was found (HR 6.09, 95% CI 2.33 to 15.93) and the mortality rate was 0.27 per 1000 person-years. For women, the corresponding mortality was not significantly increased (HR 3.68, 95% CI 0.88 to 15.27) and the mortality rate was 0.05 per 1000 person-years.
Individuals with severe reflux symptoms do not seem to have increased all-cause mortality or overall cancer-specific mortality. Although the absolute risk is small, individuals with severe reflux symptoms have a clearly increased oesophageal adenocarcinoma-specific mortality.