Polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene (CHRNA5/CHRNA3 locus) have been associated with several smoking related traits such as nicotine dependence, cigarette consumption, smoking cessation, lung cancer, and COPD. The aim of this candidate gene study was to study the locus among the Finnish COPD patients and long-term smokers with regard to COPD risk, smoking behavior, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Genotyping of rs1051730, the locus tagging SNP was done in two longitudinal cohorts: Finnish COPD patients (N = 575, 74% men) and long-term smokers, all men (N = 1911). Finnish population sample (N = 1730) was used as controls. The analyses were done using logistic and Cox regression. The main findings were that the minor allele increased the risk of COPD when compared to the Finnish population at large (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, p = 3.2 × 10-5). Homozygosity for the risk allele was associated in both cohorts with all-cause mortality (crude HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.8 and 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, respectively), with any type of cancer (crude OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.1) among the COPD patients and with the number of pack-years (crude OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) among the male smokers. CHRNA5/CHRNA3 locus tagged by rs1051730, which has been previously associated with several smoking related diseases was now shown to be associated also with increased all-cause mortality among long-term smokers with or without clinical COPD further emphasizing the clinical importance of the finding.
PURPOSE: Lung cancer, of which 85% is non-small-cell (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We used genome-wide analysis of tumor tissue to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumors are prognostic factors in early-stage NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred early-stage NSCLC patients from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) were used as a discovery set and 89 NSCLC patients collected by the National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway, were used as a validation set. DNA was extracted from flash-frozen lung tissue with at least 70% tumor cellularity. Genome-wide genotyping was done using the high-density SNP chip. Copy numbers were inferred using median smoothing after intensity normalization. Cox models were used to screen and validate significant SNPs associated with the overall survival. RESULTS: Copy number gains in chromosomes 3q, 5p, and 8q were observed in both MGH and Norwegian cohorts. The top 50 SNPs associated with overall survival in the MGH cohort (P
BACKGROUND: In a previously published in vitro study based on top-down proteomics we found that the calcium-binding proteins S100A6 and S100A4 were affected by exposure to ionizing radiation in a p53-dependent fashion. Both proteins showed post-translational modification changes, and S100A6 also showed increased expression and translocation in response to irradiation. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of S100A6 and S100A4 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: S100A6 expression on archival tumor cell lysates from 39 patients with radically resected NSCLC was assessed with SELDI-TOF-MS. S100A6 identity was confirmed using a SELDI-based antibody-capture method on lysates from the A549 lung cancer cell line, cell lysates from two freshly prepared NSCLC samples, four plasma samples and one pleural effusion sample. Immunostainings for S100A6, S100A4 and p53 were performed on tissue microarrays containing 103 stage I surgically resected NSCLC cases and 14 normal lung parenchyma specimens. RESULTS: The presence of post-translationally modified S100A6 forms was confirmed with SELDI-MS on enriched tumor cell lysates, as well as in plasma and pleural effusion samples. In addition, high S100A6 peak intensity was associated with longer median survival (35 months vs. 18 months for high and low peak intensity, respectively; p=n.s.). The immunohistochemical analysis showed that 25% of tumors were S100A6 positive. S100A6 expression correlated directly with non-squamous histology (p