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Absence of radiographic asbestosis and the risk of lung cancer among asbestos-cement workers: Extended follow-up of a cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141822
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2010 Nov;53(11):1065-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Murray M Finkelstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. murray.finkelstein@utoronto.ca
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2010 Nov;53(11):1065-9
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Asbestos - toxicity
Asbestosis - mortality - radiography
Canada - epidemiology
Construction Materials - toxicity
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Prospective Studies
Risk
Smoking
Time Factors
Abstract
It has been a matter of controversy whether there is an increased risk of lung cancer among asbestos-exposed workers without radiographic asbestosis. A previous study of lung cancer risk among asbestos-cement workers has been updated with an additional 12 years of follow-up.
Subjects had received radiographic examination at 20 and 25 years from first exposure to asbestos. Radiographs were interpreted by a single National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified B-reader using the 1971 International Labor Office (ILO) Classification of the pneumoconioses as reference standard. Asbestosis was defined as an ILO coding of 1/0 or higher. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the general population of Ontario as reference.
Among asbestos-cement workers without radiographic asbestosis at 20 years latency the lung cancer SMR was 3.84 (2.24-6.14). Among workers without asbestosis when examined at 25 years latency the SMR was 3.69 (1.59-7.26).
Workers from an Ontario asbestos-cement factory who did not have radiographic asbestosis at 20 or 25 years from first exposure to asbestos continued to have an increased risk of death from lung cancer during an additional 12 years of follow-up.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Ind Med. 2011 Jun;54(6):495-6; author reply 497-821328422
PubMed ID
20672325 View in PubMed
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An improved estimate of the quantitative relationship between polycyclic hydrocarbons and lung cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147906
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2009 Nov;66(11):716-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Dario Mirabelli
Author Affiliation
Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, University of Turin and CPO Piemonte, Via Santena 7, 10126 Turin, Italy. dario.mirabelli@cpo.it
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2009 Nov;66(11):716-7
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Metallurgy
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Polycyclic Compounds - toxicity
Quebec - epidemiology
Notes
Comment On: Occup Environ Med. 2009 Nov;66(11):740-619546103
PubMed ID
19837902 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence among workers exposed to radon and thoron daughters at a niobium mine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature26650
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1985 Feb;11(1):7-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1985
Author
H M Solli
A. Andersen
E. Stranden
S. Langård
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1985 Feb;11(1):7-13
Date
Feb-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Mining
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - etiology - mortality
Niobium - poisoning
Norway
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Radon - poisoning
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Smoking
Thorium - poisoning
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of cancer among 318 male employees of a niobium mining company which was only operated between 1951 and 1965. Many of the workers, especially underground miners, were exposed to the daughters of radon and thoron and also to thorium. The accumulated doses to the workers from short-lived radon and thoron daughters in the mine atmosphere were assessed to be relatively low; up to 300 working-level months. During the follow-up period 1953-1981, 24 new cases of cancer were observed compared to an expected number of 22.8. Twelve cases of lung cancer had occurred versus 3.0 expected. Among the 77 miners, 9 cases of lung cancer were observed against 0.8 expected. Associations between the occurrence of lung cancer and exposure to alpha radiation and smoking were found. For the radon and thoron daughter exposure, about 50 excess cases per million person-years at risk per working-level month were observed.
PubMed ID
2986282 View in PubMed
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Cancer mortality among European asphalt workers: an international epidemiological study. I. Results of the analysis based on job titles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18721
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2003 Jan;43(1):18-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Paolo Boffetta
Igor Burstyn
Timo Partanen
Hans Kromhout
Ole Svane
Sverre Langård
Bengt Järvholm
Rainer Frentzel-Beyme
Timo Kauppinen
Isabelle Stücker
Judith Shaham
Dick Heederik
Wolfgang Ahrens
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Sylvie Cenée
Gilles Ferro
Pirjo Heikkilä
Mariëtte Hooiveld
Christoffer Johansen
Britt G Randem
Walter Schill
Author Affiliation
Unit of Environmental Cancer Epidemiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. boffetta@iarc.fr
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2003 Jan;43(1):18-27
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Europe - epidemiology
Humans
Hydrocarbons
Inhalation Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Occupations - statistics & numerical data
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of bitumen fumes is potentially carcinogenic to humans. METHODS: We conducted a study of 29,820 male workers exposed to bitumen in road paving, asphalt mixing and roofing, 32,245 ground and building construction workers unexposed to bitumen, and 17,757 workers not classifiable as bitumen workers, from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden, with mortality follow-up during 1953-2000. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on national mortality rates. Poisson regression analyses compared mortality of bitumen workers to that of building or ground construction workers. RESULTS: The overall mortality was below expectation in the total cohort (SMR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.94) and in each group of workers. The SMR of lung cancer was higher among bitumen workers (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.30) than among workers in ground and building construction (SMR 1.01, 95% CI 0.89-1.15). In the internal comparison, the relative risk (RR) of lung cancer mortality among bitumen workers was 1.09 (95% CI 0.89-1.34). The results of cancer of the head and neck were similar to those of lung cancer, based on a smaller number of deaths. There was no suggestion of an association between employment in bitumen jobs and other cancers. CONCLUSIONS: European workers employed in road paving, asphalt mixing and other jobs entailing exposure to bitumen fume might have experienced a small increase in lung cancer mortality risk, compared to workers in ground and building construction. However, exposure assessment was limited and confounding from exposure to carcinogens in other industries, tobacco smoking, and other lifestyle factors cannot be ruled out.
PubMed ID
12494418 View in PubMed
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Source
Br J Ind Med. 1985 Oct;42(10):651-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1985
Author
C G Elinder
T. Kjellström
C. Hogstedt
K. Andersson
G. Spång
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1985 Oct;42(10):651-5
Date
Oct-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cadmium - adverse effects
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Prostatic Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Several epidemiological studies of workers exposed to cadmium indicate an increased risk of lung and prostatic cancer. The increase is statistically significant in some of the studies but the SMR is greater than 100 in almost all. A cohort study of the mortality among 522 Swedish workers exposed to cadmium for at least one year in a nickel-cadmium battery plant support the earlier findings. The SMR for lung and prostatic cancer increased with increasing dose and latency but did not obtain statistical significance. A combination of all the available data from the most recent follow up of causes of death among cadmium workers in six different cohorts shows 28 cases of prostatic cancer (SMR = 162) and 195 cases of lung cancer (SMR = 121). This new analysis suggests that long term, high level exposure to cadmium is associated with an increased risk of cancer. The role of concomitant exposure to nickel needs further study.
PubMed ID
4041382 View in PubMed
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Comparison of two indices of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a retrospective aluminium smelter cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166956
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2007 Apr;64(4):273-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
Melissa C Friesen
Paul A Demers
John J Spinelli
Maria F Lorenzi
Nhu D Le
Author Affiliation
Cancer Control Research, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. melissaf@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2007 Apr;64(4):273-8
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis - toxicity
Aluminum
Benzene - analysis - toxicity
Benzo(a)pyrene - analysis - toxicity
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Metallurgy
Myocardial Infarction
Occupational Exposure
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Abstract
The association between coal tar-derived substances, a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cancer is well established. However, the specific aetiological agents are unknown.
To compare the dose-response relationships for two common measures of coal tar-derived substances, benzene-soluble material (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and to evaluate which among these is more strongly related to the health outcomes.
The study population consisted of 6423 men with > or =3 years of work experience at an aluminium smelter (1954-97). Three health outcomes identified from national mortality and cancer databases were evaluated: incidence of bladder cancer (n = 90), incidence of lung cancer (n = 147) and mortality due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n = 184). The shape, magnitude and precision of the dose-response relationships and cumulative exposure levels for BSM and BaP were evaluated. Two model structures were assessed, where 1n(relative risk) increased with cumulative exposure (log-linear model) or with log-transformed cumulative exposure (log-log model).
The BaP and BSM cumulative exposure metrics were highly correlated (r = 0.94). The increase in model precision using BaP over BSM was 14% for bladder cancer and 5% for lung cancer; no difference was observed for AMI. The log-linear BaP model provided the best fit for bladder cancer. The log-log dose-response models, where risk of disease plateaus at high exposure levels, were the best-fitting models for lung cancer and AMI.
BaP and BSM were both strongly associated with bladder and lung cancer and modestly associated with AMI. Similar conclusions regarding the associations could be made regardless of the exposure metric.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17053015 View in PubMed
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Cumulative lead exposure in relation to mortality and lung cancer morbidity in a cohort of primary smelter workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22205
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997 Feb;23(1):24-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1997
Author
N G Lundström
G. Nordberg
V. Englyst
L. Gerhardsson
L. Hagmar
T. Jin
L. Rylander
S. Wall
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997 Feb;23(1):24-30
Date
Feb-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cause of Death
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Lead Poisoning - complications
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Metallurgy
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Exposure
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality and cancer incidence of long-term lead smelter workers at a primary smelter. METHODS: A cohort of 3979 workers employed for at least 1 year during 1928-1979 and a subcohort of 1992 workers employed in lead-exposed departments (lead only workers) was formed. The expected mortality in 1955-1987 and cancer incidence in 1958-1987 were calculated relative to the county rates, specified for cause, gender, 5-year age groups, and calendar year. A cumulative blood-lead index was used for the dose-response analyses. RESULTS: The lung cancer incidence of the total cohort [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.1-3.8] and the group with the highest exposure (SIR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.6) was high. Similar risk estimates were observed with a latency of 15 years. The workers hired before 1950 had higher lung cancer risk estimates (SIR 3.6, 95% CI 2.6-5.0) than the workers hired later (SIR 1.3, 95% CI 0.6-2.6, no latency period). The risk estimates for lung cancer were further elevated in the subcohort of lead-only workers (SIR 5.1, 95% CI 2.0-10.5 in the highest exposed subgroup; latency period of 15 years). No excesses of other malignancies were noted. CONCLUSIONS: The increased relative risks were probably mainly due to interactions between lead and other carcinogenic exposures, including arsenic. Further study is required concerning such possible interactions before a role in the induction of lung cancer can be ascribed to lead.
PubMed ID
9098908 View in PubMed
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Deaths in Canada from lung cancer due to involuntary smoking.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature235266
Source
CMAJ. 1987 May 1;136(9):945-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-1987
Author
D T Wigle
N E Collishaw
J. Kirkbride
Y. Mao
Source
CMAJ. 1987 May 1;136(9):945-51
Date
May-1-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Marriage
Middle Aged
Risk
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Recently published evidence indicates that involuntary smoking causes an increased risk of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Information was compiled on the proportion of people who had never smoked among victims of lung cancer, the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers married to smokers and the prevalence of such exposure. On the basis of these data we estimate that 50 to 60 of the deaths from lung cancer in Canada in 1985 among people who had never smoked were caused by spousal smoking; about 90% occurred in women. The total number of deaths from lung cancer attributable to exposure to tobacco smoke from spouses and other sources (mainly the workplace) was derived by applying estimated age- and sex-specific rates of death from lung cancer attributable to such exposure to the population of Canadians who have never smoked; about 330 deaths from lung cancer annually are attributable to such exposure.
Notes
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PubMed ID
3567810 View in PubMed
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Exposure-response relationship between lung cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150148
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2009 Nov;66(11):740-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
B G Armstrong
G. Gibbs
Author Affiliation
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT, UK. ben.armstrong@lshtm.ac.uk
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2009 Nov;66(11):740-6
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cocarcinogenesis
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Metallurgy
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Polycyclic Compounds - toxicity
Quebec - epidemiology
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Abstract
To estimate the exposure-response function associating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and lung cancer, with consideration of smoking.
Mortality, occupational exposure and smoking histories were ascertained for a cohort of 16,431 persons (15,703 men and 728 women) who had worked in one of four aluminium smelters in Quebec from 1950 to 1999. A variety of exposure-response functions were fitted to the cohort data using generalised relative risk models.
In 677 lung cancer cases there was a clear trend of increasing risk with increasing cumulative exposure to PAH measured as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). A linear model predicted a relative risk of 1.35 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.51) at 100 microg/m(-3) BaP years, but there was a significant departure from linearity in the direction of decreasing slope with increasing exposures. Among the models tried, the best fitting were a two-knot cubic spline and a power curve (RR = (1+bx)(p)), the latter predicting a relative risk of 2.68 at 100 microg/m(-3) BaP years. Additive models and multiplicative models for combining risks from occupational PAH and smoking fitted almost equally well, with a slight advantage to the additive.
Despite the large cohort with long follow-up, the shape of the exposure-response function and the mode of combination of risks due to occupational PAH and smoking remains uncertain. If a linear exposure-response function is assumed, the estimated slope is broadly in line with the estimate from a previous follow-up of the same cohort, and somewhat higher than the average found in a recent meta-analysis of lung cancer studies.
Notes
Comment In: Occup Environ Med. 2009 Nov;66(11):716-719837902
PubMed ID
19546103 View in PubMed
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32 records – page 1 of 4.