[Contribution of the otorhinolaryngology chair of the Dagestan Medical Academy to the study of the diseases of the upper respiratory tract in respect of their relations with nonspecific bronchopulmonary pathology].
The relation between the health of workers and the environment in swine confinement buildings was investigated in a study of 57 workers on 30 swine farms in southern Sweden and 55 matched controls. Swine workers reported significantly higher frequencies of respiratory symptoms, more frequent colds and absence due to chest illness, and a history of pneumonia. The increased frequency of symptoms of respiratory disease was related to the number of years and percent of the day spent working with swine. Symptoms were also associated with respirable dust, total dust, endotoxin in total dust, and number of microbes in the air of the work environment. In a multiple regression analysis of the relation between 16 different environmental parameters to work period shifts of five pulmonary function parameters, endotoxin was found to be significantly related to the FEV1 in a dose dependent way.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether application of insulation wool adversely affects lung volumes and increases the occurrence of symptoms of airway irritation. METHODS: Data from nationwide health check ups in 1981-93 of male construction workers born in 1955 or later were used to investigate cross sectional (n = 96,004) and longitudinal (n = 26,298) associations between lung volumes, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure to insulation wool by combining a job exposure matrix (JEM) and self reported exposure. Data on 12 month prevalence of persistent cough not associated with the common cold was available for the period 1989-92. Potential confounding from smoking, exposure to asbestos, silica, and isocyanates, was considered in the analyses. RESULTS: For those in the highest exposure category (self reported duration of exposure of > or = 11 years, and high exposure according to the JEM) VC was on average 2.5 cl lower (95% CI -6.5 to 1.5) than in those with no exposure. The corresponding figures for FEV1 was -2.4 cl (95% CI -6.1 to 1.3). In the longitudinal analyses, the yearly change in VC between the first and last spirometry for those in the highest exposure category was 0.50 cl (95% CI -0.97 to 1.98) less than in the unexposed category. The corresponding figure for FEV1 was 0.89 cl (95% CI - 0.70 to 2.06). High exposure to insulation wool, asbestos, or silica, during the 12 months preceding the check up was associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for persistent cough of the same magnitude as current smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate no effects on VC or FEV1 from exposure to insulation wool. Recent exposure to insulation wool, asbestos, and silica was associated with an increased prevalence of persistent cough.
We have investigated the association between the incidence of airflow limitation and occupational exposure. The employees (n?=?3,924) were investigated annually during five years (n?=?16,570) using spirometry. Exposure was classified using job category and a job exposure matrix. Airflow limitation was expressed using two indices: (i) as forced expiratory volume in one second/force vital capacity (FEV(1) /FVC)
Chronic progressive lung disease is the most prominent cause of morbidity and death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), but severity of lung disease and rate of lung function decline are widely variable. Accurate estimates of decline have been difficult to define and compare because the timing of measurements and duration of follow-up differ in various patient groups.
Three hundred sixty-six patients with CF, born from 1960 to 1974, were selected from a CF database birth cohort if they had two or more measurements of pulmonary function, at least one of which was performed before the age of 10 years.
Mixed model regression analysis provided estimates of the average rate of decline of spirometry measurements in subgroups on the basis of survival age, sex, pancreatic status, and genotype.
Patients who died before the age of 15 years had significantly poorer pulmonary function when first tested and a more rapid decline in pulmonary function thereafter than patients who survived beyond the age of 15 years. In the latter, functional levels at the age of 5 years were normal, but average rates of decline were significantly related to survival age. Female patients had significantly steeper decline than male patients, and those with pancreatic insufficiency had much steeper decline than those with pancreatic sufficiency. In the subset of 197 who survived to 1990 and were subsequently genotyped, rate of decline was greater in those homozygous for the delta F508 mutation, compared with those who were heterozygous for delta F508 or those, who had two other mutations.
All but the most severely affected patients, who died before age 15, appear to have had normal pulmonary function when first tested in early childhood. Pancreatic sufficiency, male gender, and some non-delta F508 mutations are associated with a slower rate of pulmonary function decline. Mixed model analysis is a valuable tool for describing and comparing pulmonary function decline in groups of patients with CF.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity.
A study of 2,611 long-term asbestos insulators was well suited to provide information on (1) the prevalence of spirometric impairments in a large, well-defined population and (2) the effects of cigarette smoking, radiographic abnormalities, and duration from onset of exposure on pulmonary function. Prevalences are reported by a mutually exclusive classification of impairments (normal, restrictive, obstructive, small airways, and combined) as well as by abnormality of specific spirometric tests (FVC, FEV1/FVC, and midexpiratory time). Only 3 percent of nonsmokers (NS) had obstruction and 6 percent a decreased FEV1/FVC. Frequency of restriction did not vary by smoking history; it was 31 percent in NS and current smokers (CS) and 34 percent in ex-smokers (XS). Obstruction (present in 17 percent) and combined impairment (in 18 percent) were most common in CS. The FEV1/FVC was decreased in 35 percent of CS and 18 percent of XS. The FVC was decreased in 49 percent of CS, 44 percent of XS, and 33 percent of NS. Normal spirometry was most common when the radiograph was normal (almost half the workers with normal radiographs had normal spirometry). Nevertheless, FVC was reduced in 27 percent of those with normal radiographs and a normal radiograph was seen in 11 percent of workers with restriction. Restrictive and combined impairments were most frequent when both parenchyma and pleura were abnormal. Restriction was more frequent in isolated pleural disease (seen in 34 percent such subjects) than in isolated parenchymal disease (22 percent). The contribution of pleural fibrosis to reduced FVC and of asbestos exposure and smoking both to reduced FVC and to reduced FEV1/FVC was confirmed by regression analysis. That reduced FVC and reduced FEV1/FVC are both more frequent in insulators who have smoked (compared with NS insulators or smokers in the general population) suggests an interaction between asbestos and smoking in producing both these physiologic abnormalities.