This study investigated whether chronic airflow limitation and rapid decline in pulmonary function were associated with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases in pulp mills. Bleachery workers potentially exposed to irritant gassings (n = 178) from three Swedish pulp mills, and a comparison group of workers not exposed to irritant gassings (n = 54) from two paper mills, were studied. Baseline surveys occurred in 1995-1996, with follow-up surveys in 1998-1999. Participants performed spirometry and answered questions regarding ozone, chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gassings. From regression models controlling for potential confounders, declines in both the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (-24 mL x yr(-1)) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) (-19 mL x yr(-1)) were associated with ClO2/SO2 gassings. At follow-up, the prevalence of chronic airflow limitation (i.e. FEV1/FVC less than the lower limit of normal) was elevated for participants with only pre-baseline ozone gassings and with both pre-baseline and interval ozone gassings, after controlling for potential confounders. These findings suggest that obstructive effects among bleachery workers are associated with ozone gassings, and that adverse effects on spirometry might also accompany chlorine dioxide/sulphur dioxide gassings. Peak exposures to irritant gases in pulp mills should be prevented.
To assess whether working in an industrial harbor where an oil tank exploded was associated with more airway symptoms and lower lung function in men 1.5 years later.
In a cross-sectional study of 180 men, 18 to 67 years old, airway symptoms and lung function among men who worked in the industrial harbor at the time of the explosion was compared with those of working men with residence more than 20 km away. Regression analyses are adjusted for smoking, occupational exposure, atopy, recent infection, and age.
Exposed men had significantly more upper (ORirritated nose = 2.89 [95% confidence interval = 1.31 to 6.37]) and lower (ORdyspnea uphill = 3.79 [95% confidence interval = 1.69 to 8.46]) airway symptoms, and some indication of more reversible airway obstruction than unexposed workers.
Men working in an area with an oil tank explosion had more airway symptoms and indication of more airway obstruction 1.5 years after the event.
Asbestos fibres have potent cancerogenic and fibrogenic properties and may lead to development of cancer and fibrosis in the lung parenchyma and pleura. The Danish Ministry of Employment has established rules which should prevent development of disease when working with asbestos in future but, on account of the very long latent period between exposure and development of asbestos-related disease, these conditions will still occur during the next 30-40 years. Primarily, the more benign pleural plaques will be concerned but serious disease such as bronchial carcinoma and pleural mesothelioma will occur in the future. When patients are encountered who present symptoms or objective/paraclinical findings which are compatible with disease produced by asbestos, it is important to remember that exposure to asbestos may be many decades ago and, particularly where the malignant conditions are concerned, exposure need not have been particularly massive or prolonged. All cases where asbestos-related disease is suspected should be notified to the insurance administration.
Objective of the study--to forecast morbidity (of respiratory diseases) among adolescents via mathematic modelling during primary exploitation of new aluminium production (exemplified by Taishet city). Incidence during 2003-2011 of all diseases in the adolescents equalled 1129,1 per thousand, of respiratory diseases--627,4 per thousand. The mathematic model was designed to reveal role of environmental hazards in morbidity formation. According to medium-term forecast results, launching the aluminium production plant in East Siberia in 3 years will increase by 67% the morbidity with respiratory diseases in the adolescents.
We have investigated the association between respiratory symptoms and dust exposure among employees in 18 Norwegian smelters using a longitudinal design.
All employees (N = 3,084) were examined annually for 5 years (12,996 health examinations). At each examination, the subjects reported if they had respiratory symptoms, coded as 1 (yes) or 0 (no), on a respiratory questionnaire. Symptom score was constructed as the sum of symptoms (0-5). Full-time workers in the production line were classified as line operators; subjects never exposed in the production line were regarded as non-exposed. The remaining individuals were classified as non-line operators. A job-exposure matrix regarding dust exposure was also available. Analyses of repeated measurements were performed using generalised linear mixed model with log-link (Poisson regression). Adjustments were made for overdispersion.
The mean age at inclusion was 39.0 years, and 89% were men. The median dust exposure in tertiles 1-3 was 0.19, 1.76 and 3.47 mg/m(3). The longitudinal analyses showed that the association between symptoms-score ratio (SSR) and job category was significantly stronger in dropouts compared with non-dropouts (p = 0.01). Among the dropouts, SSR was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.27-2.05) and 1.39 (1.09-1.77) in line operators and non-line operators compared with non-exposed employees, respectively. The corresponding SSR for subjects who completed the study was 1.13 (1.01-1.27) and 1.12 (1.00-1.26), respectively. Similarly, among the dropouts, the SSR between the second and the first tertile was 1.28 (1.05-1.55) and 1.37 (1.13-1.66) between the third tertile and the first tertile.
Line operators had more respiratory symptoms than non-exposed employees. This effect was significantly stronger in dropouts than in those who continued their jobs, indicating that there is a selection of subjects without respiratory symptoms in this industry.
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008 Feb;81(4):451-917694317
Miners engaged into open-cast and underground extraction of copper-nickel ores in Kolsky Transpolar area have chronic bronchitis as a main nosologic entity among chronic bronchopulmonary diseases (19.1% of the workers). Considerably lower (4.0% of the workers) occurrence concerns chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchial asthma, both developed before the occupational involvement (1.3% of the workers). Complex of occupational and nonoccupational risk factors is connected mostly with smoking that increases COLD/CB risk 10.7-15.8-fold.
The article contains evaluation of physical and chemical properties of mine aerosol in mines using self-propelled diesel devices, information on the aerosol and exhaust gases components concentrations in the workplace air. Dispersed phase of the aerosol is presented by mineral and organic components, mineral and soot particles absorb gaseous exhaust components. Feature of occupational pulmonary diseases in highly-mechanized mine workers is toxic dust affection of bronchi, mostly with asthmatic course and chronic obstructive type of respiratory dysfunction, relatively short-term disease development.
Health impairment was investigated by a thorough clinical investigation in a cross-sectional study of 821 male and 758 female workers in a nickel hydrometallurgy refining plant. The average nickel exposure levels were found to be around 0.2 mg/m3 in the electrolysis department and 0.13 mg/m3 in the electrolyte purification department. Corresponding average urinary values for nickel were 16 micrograms/l and 10 micrograms/l, respectively. The most common types of health impairment found were respiratory, skin and cardiovascular diseases. Health impairments, except for respiratory diseases, were found more often in females than in males. The design of the study does not allow comparison with a non-exposed population. Even if there are serious limitations in the statistical and sampling details of the pregnancies and new-born babies, the results suggest adverse health effects at usually accepted exposure levels to nickel. Normal pregnancies were reported in 29% of 356 pregnant nickel workers compared with 39% in 342 local construction workers. Spontaneous and threatening abortions were reported in 16% and 17% of all pregnancies in nickel-exposed workers, compared with 9% and 8%, respectively in the construction workers. Structural malformations were found in about 17% of alive-born infants with nickel-exposed mothers, compared with about 6% in the reference group. Significant increased risks of 2.9, 6.1 and 1.9 for total defects, cardiovascular defects and defects of the musculoskeletal system, respectively, were demonstrated.