A questionnaire was given to 1,824 farmers and 556 control subjects in Saskatchewan to assess respiratory health and pulmonary function tests. With data corrected for age and smoking, farmers were found to have increased prevalences of the respiratory symptoms of phlegm, wheeze, shortness of breath, and the condition of chronic bronchitis. In addition, farmers had significantly lower values for the pulmonary function test variables forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) and maximum midexpiratory flow rate. However, the FEV1/FVC ratio was slightly but significantly greater in farmers than in control subjects. These findings suggest an increase in respiratory symptoms in farmers compared with rural control subjects who are not farmers and a decrease in lung volume and expired flow rates. The slightly high FEV1/FVC ratio may indicate a mixed obstructive and restrictive picture.
Lung function was evaluated in a representative population sample of 50-year-0ld men living in one Swedish city. Twenty-four smoking and 15 non-smoking men heterozygous for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency--that is, with the protease-inhibitor (Pi1 phenotype MZ--were carefully matched for weight and smoking habit with Pi M controls. The pulmonary function of non-smoking Pi MZ subjects did not differ from that of non-smoking Pi M controls. In contrast, smoking heterozygotes showed a significant loss of elastic recoil, enlarged residual volumes, and increased closing capacity but no signs of obstructive ventilatory impairment. Most smoking Pi MZ individuals reported mild exertional dyspnoea.
From 1976 to 1987 alpha 1-antitrypsine deficiency type PiZZ was diagnosed in 89 patients living in the Copenhagen urban area (mean age: 45 years). Spirometry was performed yearly in 66 of these patients (mean observation period was 50 months). At the time of diagnosis basic FEV1 was significantly lower in smokers and ex-smokers than in patients who had never smoked (45%, 44% and 84% of predicted normal, respectively). However, the decline in FEV1 was similar (3% per year) in all three categories of smokers. Our results indicate that both smokers and non-smokers are at risk of developing pulmonary emphysema, however, the disease usually appears later in life or not at all in non smokers.
Compare respiratory health in children born extremely preterm (EP) or with extremely low birthweight (ELBW) nearly one decade apart, hypothesizing that better perinatal management has led to better outcome.
Fifty-seven (93%) of 61 eligible 11-year old children born in Western Norway in 1999-2000 with gestational age (GA)
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Jan;161(1):309-2910619836
137 patients, who underwent various lung operations under the conditions of the Extreme North, were examined within the period from 1.5 to 9 years after operation. Good results were found in 87 patients (63.5%), satisfactory ones in 30 patients (20.9%) and poor results - in 20 patients (14.6%).