Lead nitrate in a dose of 200 mg/kg was administered to female rats via a gartric tube on days 5 and 12 of pregnancy. The lungs of their offspring were examined on day 40 of life. We found a decrease in the ratio between the specific volumes of alveolar lumens and interalveolar septa and hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue in the bronchial wall (compared to the offspring of intact females). Chemiluminescent analysis revealed activation of lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant antiradical activity of the lungs.
The immunosuppressant cyclosporin A given orally has anti-asthma properties but carries an undesirable risk of systemic effects. We administered cyclosporin A to Brown Norway rats either orally (p.o.) or topically by intratracheal (i.t.) instillation into the airways before inhaled antigen. Cyclosporin A suppressed the antigen-induced accumulation of activated (CD25+) CD4+ T lymphocytes and eosinophils in the lung, interleukin-5 mRNA expression in lung tissue and airway hyperreactivity. Intratracheal cyclosporin A suppressed cell accumulation at a 10-fold lower dose than that required orally. Minimum effective doses were 3 mg x kg(-1) i.t. and 30 mg x kg(-1) p.o. Intratracheal administration reduced the plasma concentration and systemic exposure compared with an equieffective oral dose, but the reduction (4-5-fold) was not as large as anticipated. Our data suggests that although topical administration to asthmatics would provide some potential for an improved safety margin, it may not offer any major advantage over existing oral therapy. However, the data clearly demonstrate that a novel immunosuppressant with similar anti-inflammatory properties but reduced potential for systemic effects would offer an attractive therapy for severe asthma.
The exposure of swimmers to chloroform (CHCl3) was investigated in indoor swimming pools of the Quebec City region along with the associated carcinogenic risk. Six training sessions involving 52 competition swimmers (11 to 20 yr old) were conducted in 3 different pools, while 12 adult leisure swimmers attended 5 sessions, each held in a different pool. For each session, water and ambient air CHCl3 concentrations were measured and CHCl3 levels in alveolar air samples (CHCl3 ALV) collected from swimmers prior to entering the swimming pool premises and after 15, 35, and 60 min of swimming. Mean water concentrations varied from 18 microg/L to 80 microg/L, while those in air ranged from 78 microg/m3 to 329 microg/m3. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that CHCl3 ALV values in competition swimmers were strongly correlated to ambient air and water levels, and to a lesser degree to the intensity of training. Only ambient air concentration was positively correlated to CHCl3 ALV in the leisure group. Concentrations of CHCl3 metabolites bound to hepatic and renal macromolecules, estimated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, were 1.6 and 1.9 times higher for the competition swimmers than for the leisure swimmers, respectively. The highest hepatic concentration predicted in competition swimmers, 0.22 microg CHCl3 equivalents/kg of tissue, was at least 10,000 times lower than the smallest no observed effect level for liver tumors in animals. Data indicate that the safety margin is therefore very large, for competitive swimmers as well as for leisure swimmers.
It is clear that particulate air pollution poses a serious risk to human health; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated pulmonary transcriptional responses in mice following in-situ exposure to ambient air in a heavily industrialized urban environment. Mature C57BL/CBA male mice were caged in sheds near two working steel mills and a major highway in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in the spring/summer of 2004. Control mice were housed in the same environment, but received only high-efficiency particle filtered air (HEPA). Whole lung tissues were collected from mice exposed for 3, 10, or for 10 weeks followed by 6 weeks recovery in the laboratory (16 weeks). DNA microarrays were used to profile changes in pulmonary gene expression. Transcriptional profiling revealed changes in the expression of genes implicated in the lipid droplet synthesis (Plin I, Dgat2, Lpl, S3-12, and Agpat2), and antioxidant defense (Ucp1) pathways in mice breathing unfiltered air. We postulate that exposure to urban air, containing an abundance of particulate matter adsorbed with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, triggers lipid droplet (holding depots for lipids and malformed/excess proteins tagged for degradation) synthesis in the lungs, which may act to sequester particulates. Increased lipid droplet synthesis could lead to endogenous/stressor-induced production of reactive oxygen species and activation of antioxidant mechanisms. Further investigation into the stimulation of lipid droplet synthesis in the lung in response to air pollution and the resulting health implications is warranted.
1. We examined the effect of SP100030, a novel inhibitor of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B transcription factors, in a rat model of asthma. 2. Sensitized Brown-Norway rats were treated with SP100030 (20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 3 days) intraperitoneally prior to allergen challenge. Allergen exposure of sensitized rats induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), accumulation of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and also an increase in eosinophils and CD2(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in the airways together with mRNA expression for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IFN-gamma. 3. Pre-treatment with SP100030 inhibited BAL lymphocyte influx (P
We investigated the influence of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on tumor growth and metastasis of the lung Lewis carcinoma in mice. The effect of NSE on lipid composition of lung tissue under tumorogenesis was also studied. We demonstrated that NSE inhibited the tumor growth and decreased the volume and quantity of metastases being administered from the fourth day after injection of tumor cells to the last day of experiment and being administrated from the 21th day after injection of tumor cells to the last day of the experiment. The analysis of the lipid composition of the lung tissue showed the decrease of total phospholipid levels and change of the phospholipid spectra under tumor growth. The decreasing of the concentration of phosphatidylcholine, sphyngomyeline, phosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylcholine in the lung tissue of tumor-bearding mice in comparison with lung of intact animals was observed. It was found that administration of NSE increased the level of lysophosphatidylcholine and decreased the concentration of phosphatidylinositol in investigated tissues. The content of sphingosine was increased in lung tissue of mice fed by NSE in comparison with tumor-bearing mice. The carcinoma development was associated by the significant decreasing of cholesterol level and by the increasing of unsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids. The amount of the tiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances in tumor-bearing mice was elevated. The administration of NSE inhibited the accumulation of TBA reacting compounds.
Chronic inflammation in asthmatic airways can lead to characteristic airway smooth muscle (ASM) thickening and pathological changes within the airway wall. This study assessed the effect of repeated allergen exposure on ASM and epithelial cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, cell recruitment and airway wall pathology. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized and then exposed to ovalbumin or saline aerosol every 3 days on six occasions. After the final exposure, rats were administered twice daily for 7 days with the DNA S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Using a triple immunohistochemical staining technique, BrdU incorporation into ASM and epithelium was quantified employing computer-assisted image analysis. There were >3-fold mean increases in BrdU incorporation into ASM from 1.3% of cells (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.6) in saline controls to 4.7% (95% CI 2.6-6.7) after allergen exposure (p