Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). The relative content of fatty acids in adipose tissue biopsies from a random sample of 996 men and women aged 50-64 years drawn from a Danish cohort study was determined by GC. Baseline data on weight, WC and potential confounders were available together with information on weight and WC 5 years after enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18:1t), 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid (18:1 ?11t) and rumenic acid (18:2 ?9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18:1t was 1.52% (90% central range 0.98, 2.19) in men and 1.47% (1.01, 2.19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18:1t, 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue are not associated with subsequent changes in weight or WC within the exposure range observed in this population.
There is a lack of knowledge about how oral contraceptives may affect sexual function.
To determine whether there is a causal effect of oral contraceptives on sexuality. We hypothesized that a widely used pill impairs sexuality.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Enrollment began in February 2012 and was completed in August 2015.
Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
A total of 340 healthy women, aged 18-35 years, were randomized to treatment, and 332 completed the study.
A combined oral contraceptive (150 µg levonorgestrel and 30 µg ethinylestradiol) or placebo for 3 months of treatment.
The primary outcome was the aggregate score on the Profile of Female Sexual Function (PFSF). Secondary outcomes were the seven domains of the PFSF, the Sexual Activity Log, and the Personal Distress Scale.
Overall sexual function was similar in women in the oral contraceptive and placebo groups. The PFSF domains desire (-4.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.49 to -0.38; P = .032), arousal (-5.1; 95% CI, -9.63 to -0.48; P = .030), and pleasure (-5.1; 95% CI, -9.97 to -0.32; P = .036) were significantly reduced in comparison to placebo, whereas orgasm, concern, responsiveness, and self-image were similar between groups. The mean frequency of satisfying sexual episodes and personal distress were also similar between groups.
This study shows no negative impact of a levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptive on overall sexual function, although three of seven sexual function domains were adversely affected.
Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (? statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (? = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (? = 0.249 to ? = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines.
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Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal disease spread by an airborne pathogen infecting approximately one third of the globe. For decades, contact tracing (CT) has served a key role in the control of TB and many other notifiable communicable diseases. Unfortunately, CT is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process and is often conducted by a small and overworked nursing staff. To help improve the effectiveness of CT, we introduce a detailed, individual-based model of CT for the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The model captures the detailed operation of TB CT, including loss to follow-up, and prophylactic and case treatment. This representation is used to assess the impact on active TB cases and TB infection prevalence of differential scoping, speed, prioritization of the CT process, and reduced loss to follow-up. Scenario results are broadly consistent with--but provide many additional insights beyond--our previously reported findings using an aggregate model. In the context of a stylized northern community, findings suggest that age- and ethnicity-prioritized schemes could improve CT effectiveness compared to unprioritized schemes by dramatically reducing TB infection and preventing on average roughly 11% (p
The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (P
Lung cancer survivors exhibit poor functional capacity, physical functioning, and quality of life (QoL). Here, we report the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) intervention in post-treatment lung cancer survivors. Seventeen post-treatment lung cancer survivors (10 female), with a mean age of 67 (range 50-85), mean BMI of 25, and diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (94%) were recruited in Edmonton, Canada between August 2009 and August 2010 to undergo PRET. The primary outcomes focused on feasibility including eligibility and recruitment rate, loss to follow-up, measurement completion, exercise adherence, and program evaluation. Secondary outcomes addressed preliminary efficacy and included changes in muscular strength (1 repetition maximum), muscular endurance (repetitions at 70% of 1 repetition maximum), body composition (DXA scan), physical functioning (6-minute-walk-test, up-and-go, sit-to-stand, arm curls), and patient-reported outcomes including QoL (SF-36, FACT-L), fatigue (FACT-F), dyspnea (MRCD), and patient-rated function (LLFI). Forty of 389 lung cancer survivors were eligible (10%) and 17 of the 40 (43%) were recruited. Over 80% of participants were able to complete all testing; two participants were lost to follow-up, and the median adherence rate was 96% (range: 25-100%). Ratings of testing burden were low (i.e., less than two out of seven for all items), and trial evaluation was high (i.e., greater than six out of seven for all measures). Paired t-tests showed significant increases in muscular strength (p
Canadian Cardiovascular Society consensus guidelines recommend that tetralogy of Fallot patients be seen by a congenital cardiologist every 2 years. In Atlantic Canada, tetralogy of Fallot patients are followed up at either tertiary or satellite clinics, which are held in the community and attended by paediatric cardiologists. The effectiveness of satellite clinics in congenital cardiac disease follow-up is unproven. Our objective was to compare patient-reported quality of life measures to determine whether these were impacted by the site of follow-up.
We included patients with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing surgical repair at the Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre from 1 November, 1972 to 31 May, 2002. Quality of life surveys, SF-10 or SF-36v2, were administered to consenting patients. We analysed the subjective health status by patient age and site of follow-up.
Of the 184 eligible patients, 72 were lost to follow-up. Of the locatable patients, 61% completed the questionnaires. In all, 90% (101 out of 112) were followed up at recommended intervals. Of the 112 (68%) patients, 76 were followed up at a tertiary clinic. These patients were older, with a mean age of 18.4 years versus 14.7 years, and scored higher on the SF-36 physical component summary (52.6 versus 45.7, p = 0.02) compared with satellite clinic patients. The SF-36 mental component summary scores were similar for patients regardless of the site of follow-up. SF-10 physical and psychosocial scores were similar regardless of the site of follow-up.
Tetralogy of Fallot patients followed at either satellite or tertiary clinics have similar subjective health status.
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children.
Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey.
The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008.
Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists.
Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14).
Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
There is a lack of scientific knowledge about the broader spectrum of hypomania in adolescence and the course over time. To investigate this, we used longitudinal data spanning from adolescence to age 31 years.
A community sample of adolescents (N=2300) was screened for depressive symptoms. Adolescents (16-17 years) with a positive screening and matched controls were interviewed with a structured diagnostic interview. A blinded follow-up assessment was conducted 15 years later, with a structured diagnostic interview covering the age span 19-31 years. Questions about treatment and family history were included.
Ninety adolescents (16-17 years) with a lifetime hypomania spectrum episode (3.9% of the total sample) were identified: 40 with fullsyndromal, 18 with brief-episode (
Initial non-participation and loss to follow-up in the Danish youth cohort Vestliv could introduce selection bias of the measured risk estimates.
To investigate the impact of initial non-participation and loss to follow-up on the validity of descriptive measures and selected estimates of relative risk.
Of the 3681 young people defining the source population, 83% answered a questionnaire at baseline in 2004. At follow-up waves in 2007 and 2010, the response rates were 71% and 64%, respectively. Relative ORs (RORs) were used to examine the impact of initial non-participation and loss to follow-up on the association between socioeconomic or personal risk factors at age 14/15 and educational attainment at age 20/21. RORs were calculated as OR (baseline population)/OR (source population) or OR (follow-up population)/OR (baseline population).
The participants had slightly better school abilities and came more often from homes with two adults, higher income or higher educational level. These differences increased at subsequent follow-ups. The effect of initial non-participation on the ORs was modest with most RORs being close to one. Loss to follow-up led to larger variations in the RORs ranging from 0.77 to 1.62 although for most estimates, the bias was minor. None of the measured RORs were statistically different from one indicating no significant bias.
Although certain characteristics were related to those who initially chose to participate and especially to those who participated at follow-ups, it did not have any large influence on the relative risk estimates measured in the study.