Abstinence from alcohol has been associated with higher mortality than a moderate consumption of alcohol. However, there is evidence to indicate that the abstainers constitute a select group which is exposed to various psychosocial risk factors.
A population-based sample (N=1978) from the study Young in Norway - longitudinal was followed with repeated surveys from their teens until approaching the age of 30. This data set was linked to various registries. The collection of data included their use of alcohol, social integration and symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as sexual behaviour. Data on receipt of social benefits were collected from registries.
At age 21, altogether 211 individuals (10.7%) had remained abstinent from alcohol throughout their entire lives. At age 28, their number had fallen to 93 individuals (4.7%). At age 21, abstinence was associated with weak networks of friends, loneliness and a higher likelihood of not yet having had a sexual debut. At age 28, the abstainers also reported a higher prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression. They were also more frequent recipients of social benefits.
Abstinence from alcohol in adulthood is associated with psychosocial problems and weak integration. These may introduce confounding factors in studies of the health effects of alcohol consumption.
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2013 Mar 5;133(5):50123463056
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2013 Mar 5;133(5):50123463055
The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation.
Advancing age brings a natural weakening of functions, making the individual rely more on support from the community and next-of-kin. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in relation to subjective loneliness, the ADL dependence of elderly persons with and without impaired cognitive capacity. 264 persons were interviewed. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used as a screening instrument for obtaining a cognitively-impaired and a normal group of elderly. Persons with impaired cognitive capacity who experienced loneliness had the greatest ADL dependence.
Several studies suggest a rapid decrease of alcohol use among adolescents after the turn of the century. With decreasing prevalence rates of smokers, a so-called hardening may have taken place, implying that remaining smokers are characterized by more psychosocial problems. Are similar processes witnessed among remaining adolescent alcohol users as well?
In 1992, 2002 and 2010 we used identical procedures to collect data from three population-based samples of 16- and 17-year-old Norwegians (n = 9207). We collected data on alcohol consumption, binge drinking, parental factors, use of other substances, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, social integration, sexual behaviour and loneliness.
There was a steep increase in all measures of alcohol consumption from 1992 to 2002, followed by a similar decline until 2010. Most correlates remained stable over the time span.
Alcohol use was consistently related to psychosocial problems; on the other hand, alcohol users reported higher levels of social acceptance and social integration than did non-users. There were no signs of 'hardening' as seen for tobacco use.
Nursing home residents often have pain as their everyday experiences and experience pain in silence.
The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of how nursing home residents experienced pain and how it influenced their lives and daily living.
The present study applied a descriptive design. Fifteen residents from nursing homes were recruited among the participants in a larger quantitative study who reported having pain.
A qualitative method using in-depth interviews was used. The data were analysed applying Kvale's method of interpretive analysis.
Two dimensions of pain were identified: physical pain and pain as suffering. These are described in relation to factors that influence the intensity and the consequences of pain experiences.
Physical pain may be relieved by various means of pain management. The residents experienced pain as suffering because pain management was not timely, inappropriate, or insufficient and also because of the nature of their social situation in nursing homes.
Caregivers in nursing homes need to understand how it feels for residents to live with pain, to be interested in and aware of their needs and finally to know how to respond to their pain and suffering.
As part of a larger study focusing on different facets of the lives of 2,731 older Canadians who seasonally reside in Florida, we investigated primarily the extent of family and friendship contacts and the loneliness expressed by these older Canadians. The data were collected using a questionnaire that was distributed and returned by mail. The sample was taken from the subscription list of a newspaper in Florida that was a subsidiary of a large Canadian newspaper. The results show a population that was relatively young, married, in generally good health, and with rather extensive contacts with family and friends while residing in Florida. Nevertheless, more than a fifth indicated they were at least somewhat lonely. Results, using discriminate function analysis, showed that those more lonely were younger, female, less educated, not married, in poorer physical health, had fewer Florida friends, and had more children who lived near them in Canada, but fewer children who lived near them in the United States. Implications of the results are discussed.
This study aimed to investigate whether leaving home to live in lodgings during senior high school can be a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. Utilizing two large-scale prospective community studies of 2399 and 3906 Norwegian students (age range 15-19 years), respectively, the difference in internalizing symptoms between adolescents living in lodgings and adolescents living with their parents during senior high school was examined. Female students living in lodgings had higher scores on internalizing problems than female students living at home, whereas no differences were found for males. Living in lodgings did not predict later internalizing problems, and prior internalizing problems did not predict moving into lodgings. It is therefore suggested that the negative effect of living in lodgings on high school students' well-being is temporary.
The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of and the association between depressive symptoms and loneliness in relation to age and sex among older people (65-80 years) and to investigate to what extent those who report depressive symptoms had visited a health care professional and/or used antidepressant medication.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Swedish sample randomized from the total population in the age group 65-80 years (n = 6659). Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted.
The data showed that 9.8% (n = 653) reported depressive symptoms and 27.5% reported feelings of loneliness. More men than women reported depressive symptoms, and the largest proportion was found among men in the age group 75-80 years. An association between the odds to have a depressive disorder and loneliness was found which, however, decreased with increasing age. Of those with depressive symptoms a low proportion had visited a psychologist (2.9%) or a welfare officer (4.2%), and one in four reported that they use antidepressant medication. Of those who reported depressive symptoms, 29% considered that they had needed medical care during the last three months but had refrained from seeking, and the most common reason for that was negative experience from previous visits.
Contrary to findings in most of the studies, depressive symptoms were not more prevalent among women. The result highlights the importance of detecting depressive symptoms and loneliness in older people and to offer adequate treatment in order to increase their well-being.
Previous studies of loneliness have largely focused on establishing risk factors in specific age groups such as in later life or in young people. Researchers have paid less attention to the link between social capital and loneliness across different age groups. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and experienced loneliness in different age groups in a Finnish setting.
The data originates from a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted among 4618 people aged 15-80 in Western Finland in 2011. The response rate was 46.2 %. The association between social capital, measured by frequency of social contacts, participation in organisational activities, trust and sense of belonging to the neighbourhood and loneliness was tested by logistic regression analyses stratified by four age groups.
Frequent loneliness (defined as experienced often or sometimes) was higher among younger people (39.5 %) compared to older people (27.3 %). Low levels of trust were linked to loneliness in all four age groups. The association between other aspects of social capital and loneliness varied across age groups.
Frequent loneliness is common among the general adult population and could be seen as a public health issue. Our findings imply that low social capital, especially in terms of low trust, may be a risk factor for loneliness. However, further research is needed to assess the influence of poor health and reverse causality as explanations for the findings.
This study adds to the meagre body of longitudinal research on the link between emotional distress and alcohol use among young people. We address the following research questions: Are symptoms of anxiety and depressed mood likely to be causally related to heavy episodic drinking (HED)? Does the association change as individuals move from adolescence to early adulthood?
Data stemmed from a national sample of young people in Norway that was assessed in 1992 (T1; mean age?=?14.9 years), 1994 (T2), 1999 (T3) and 2005 (T4) (response rate: 60%, n?=?2171). We applied fixed-effects modelling, implying that intra-individual changes in the frequency of HED were regressed on intra-individual changes in emotional distress. Hence, confounding due to stable underlying influences was eliminated. Self-perceived loneliness was included as a time-varying covariate.
Emotional distress was unrelated to HED in adolescence (T1 to T2). In the transition from adolescence to early adulthood (T2 to T3), changes in depressiveness were positively and independently associated with changes in HED, whereas changes symptoms of anxiety were not. A similar pattern emerged in early adulthood (T3 to T4).
The potential causal relationship between emotional distress and heavy drinking did not manifest itself in adolescence, but increased symptoms of depressiveness were related to more frequent HED in subsequent periods of life. Hence, this study provides conditional support to the notion that emotional distress and HED may be causally related and indicates that the association among young people may be specific to depressiveness.