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7171 records – page 1 of 718.

Predictive validity and measurement issues in documenting quit intentions in population surveillance studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147009
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Jan;12(1):43-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
S J Bondy
J C Victor
S. O'Connor
P W McDonald
L M Diemert
J E Cohen
Author Affiliation
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, 6th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 3M7. sue.bondy@utoronto.ca
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Jan;12(1):43-52
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Humans
Intention
Logistic Models
Ontario
Population Surveillance
Smoking Cessation - psychology
Abstract
Discrete classification of smokers by intention to quit is desirable in many public health and clinical settings.
Two methodological studies examine measurement properties of measures of discrete-time intention to quit smoking used in population-based tobacco surveillance surveys: an ecological comparison of rates of positive intention in relation to the form of measure used and a prospective analysis examining predictive validity of self-reported quit intentions using multiple possible points of dichotomization of an ordinal measure of intention to quit. The prospective analysis used a repeated measures design and follow-up to 1 year for 2,047 smokers in the Ontario Tobacco Survey cohort.
The estimated percent of smokers intending to quit was significantly higher using the Stages of Change intention measure, relative to another single question measure. Significant dose-response effects were found. The sooner one intended to quit the more likely one was to make an attempt or achieve at least 30 days abstinence in the next 6 months. Intending to quit in a month or later was not associated with cessation during follow-up among respondents without prior attempts. Examination of cutpoints revealed no value, which maximized both positive and negative prediction. Regardless of quit attempt history, greatest predictive validity was found where respondents stated that they had no intention at all.
Measures of intentions quit smoking in specific time periods and expressed as dichotomies have limited psychometric properties but utility in applied research. Our findings suggest a possible measurement effect warranting caution in comparisons across studies.
PubMed ID
19955339 View in PubMed
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Comments on 'The performance of different propensity score methods for estimating marginal odds ratios'.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157929
Source
Stat Med. 2008 Aug 30;27(19):3915-7; author reply 3918-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-30-2008
Author
Erika Graf
Martin Schumacher
Source
Stat Med. 2008 Aug 30;27(19):3915-7; author reply 3918-20
Date
Aug-30-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bias (epidemiology)
Epidemiologic Methods
Humans
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
Ontario
Notes
Comment On: Stat Med. 2007 Jul 20;26(16):3078-9417187347
PubMed ID
18384189 View in PubMed
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Disturbance of a rare seabird by ship-based tourism in a marine protected area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285659
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0176176
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Timothy K Marcella
Scott M Gende
Daniel D Roby
Arthur Allignol
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0176176
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Birds
Conservation of Natural Resources
Logistic Models
Ships
Travel
Abstract
Managers of marine protected areas (MPAs) must often seek ways to allow for visitation while minimizing impacts to the resources they are intended to protect. Using shipboard observers, we quantified the "zone of disturbance" for Kittlitz's and marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus brevirostris and B. marmoratus) exposed to large cruise ships traveling through Glacier Bay National Park, one of the largest MPAs in North America. In the upper reaches of Glacier Bay, where Kittlitz's murrelets predominated, binary logistic regression models predicted that 61% of all murrelets within 850 m perpendicular distance of a cruise ship were disturbed (defined as flushing or diving), whereas in the lower reaches, where marbled murrelets predominated, this percentage increased to 72%. Using survival analysis, murrelets in both reaches were found to react at greater distances when ships approached indirectly, presumably because of the ship's larger profile, suggesting murrelets responded to visual rather than audio cues. No management-relevant covariates (e.g., ship velocity, route distance from shore) were found to be important predictors of disturbance, as distance from ship to murrelet accounted for > 90% of the explained variation in murrelet response. Utilizing previously published murrelet density estimates from Glacier Bay, and applying an average empirical disturbance probability (68%) out to 850 m from a cruise ship's typical route, we estimated that a minimum of 9.8-19.6% of all murrelets in Glacier Bay are disturbed per ship entry. Whether these disturbance levels are inconsistent with Park management objectives, which include conserving wildlife as well as providing opportunities for visitation, depends in large part on whether disturbance events caused by cruise ships have impacts on murrelet fitness, which remains uncertain.
Notes
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Cites: PLoS One. 2011 Mar 16;6(3):e1768621436887
Cites: Stat Med. 2007 May 20;26(11):2389-43017031868
Cites: J Histochem Cytochem. 1977 Jul;25(7):935-41894009
PubMed ID
28489902 View in PubMed
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Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields while working at switching and transforming stations of 110 kV.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135701
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2011 Jun;55(5):526-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Leena Korpinen
Harri Kuisti
Rauno Pääkkönen
Pauli Vanhala
Jarmo Elovaara
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health, Tampere University of Technology, Finland. leena.korpinen@tut.fi
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2011 Jun;55(5):526-36
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Electromagnetic fields
Finland
Humans
Logistic Models
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Power Plants
Abstract
The aim of the study was to measure occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during various work tasks at switching and transforming stations of 110 kV (in some situations 20 kV), and analyze if the action values of European Union Directive 2004/40/EC or reference values of International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) were exceeded. The electric (n = 765) and magnetic (n = 203) fields were measured during various work tasks. The average values of all measurements were 3.6 kV m(-1) and 28.6 µT. The maximum value of electric fields was 15.5 kV m(-1) at task 'maintenance of operating device of circuit breaker from service platform'. In one special work task close to shunt reactor cables (20 kV), the highest magnetic field was 710 µT. In general, the measured magnetic fields were below the reference values of ICNIRP.
PubMed ID
21454328 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with successful vocational rehabilitation in a Swedish rural area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193917
Source
J Rehabil Med. 2001 Mar;33(2):71-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
S U Marnetoft
J. Selander
A. Bergroth
J. Ekholm
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Rehabil Med. 2001 Mar;33(2):71-8
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Rehabilitation, Vocational
Rural Population
Sweden
Abstract
The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with a positive outcome of vocational rehabilitation, and to identify groups that have been successfully rehabilitated in a Swedish rural area. In this study vocational rehabilitation is defined as medical multidisciplinary, psychological, social and occupational activities aiming to re-establish, among sick or injured people with previous work history, their working capacity and prerequisites for returning to the labour market. The study was based on 732 people on registered long-term sick-leave who, in a rural area in northern Sweden during 1992-94, became objects for vocational rehabilitation. Bivariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the outcome. By successful vocational rehabilitation is meant reporting well (no economical benefit) at all three time-points 6, 12 and 24 months after termination of rehabilitation, or lowered benefit levels. The results indicate that younger, male, employed persons, with an early start on rehabilitation, in a programme entailing education, and partly sick-listed before the start of this programme, had the greatest chance of successful rehabilitation. In contrast, older, female, unemployed people, with a delayed start on rehabilitation, without education, and fully sick-listed before the start, greatly risked being unsuccessful with vocational rehabilitation. The results indicate how to improve the rehabilitation process: several process-related factors shown to be connected with successful vocational rehabilitation include time before the start of rehabilitation, partial instead of full sickness benefit, and education programmes.
PubMed ID
11474952 View in PubMed
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Witnessing-condition heterogeneity and witnesses' versus investigators' confidence in the accuracy of witnesses' identification decisions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196451
Source
Law Hum Behav. 2000 Dec;24(6):685-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
D S Lindsay
E. Nilsen
J D Read
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. slindsay@uvic.ca
Source
Law Hum Behav. 2000 Dec;24(6):685-97
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Humans
Jurisprudence
Logistic Models
Mental Recall
Recognition (Psychology)
Self-Assessment
Abstract
Undergraduate participants were tested in 144 pairs, with one member of each pair randomly assigned to a "witness" role and the other to an "investigator" role. Each witness viewed a target person on video under good or poor witnessing conditions and was then interviewed by an investigator, who administered a photo line up and rated his or her confidence in the witness. Witnesses also (separately) rated their own confidence. Investigators discriminated between accurate and inaccurate witnesses, but did so less well than witnesses' own confidence ratings and were biased toward accepting witnesses' decisions. Moreover, investigators' confidence made no unique contribution to the prediction of witnesses' accuracy. Witnesses' confidence and accuracy were affected in the same direction by witnessing conditions, and there was a substantial confidence-accuracy correlation when data were collapsed across witnessing conditions. Confidence can be strongly indicative of accuracy when witnessing conditions vary widely, and witnesses' confidence may be a better indicator than investigators'.
PubMed ID
11105479 View in PubMed
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The validity and clinical utility of the MMPI-2 Malingering Depression scale.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171762
Source
J Pers Assess. 2005 Dec;85(3):304-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2005
Author
R Michael Bagby
Margarita B Marshall
Jason R Bacchiochi
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. michael_bagby@camh.net
Source
J Pers Assess. 2005 Dec;85(3):304-11
Date
Dec-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Depression - psychology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
MMPI
Male
Malingering - psychology
Ontario
Abstract
In this study, we examined the validity and clinical utility of the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Graham, Tellegen, Dahlstrom, & Kaemmer, 2001) Malingering Depression scale (Md) in relation to the MMPI-2 F scales (F, F(B), F(P)) to detect feigned depression. Overall, the F(B) scale and the F/F(P) scale combination were the best single predictors, although the Md scale did discriminate successfully cases of feigned depression from patients with bona fide depression. The Md scale added predictive capacity over the F scales, and the F(B) scale and the F/F(P) scale combination added predictive capacity over the Md scale; however, the actual increase in the number of cases predicted was minimal in each instance. In sum, although the Md scale is able to detect accurately feigned depression on the MMPI-2 (predictive validity), it does not confer a distinct advantage (incremental validity) over the existing standard validity scales-F, F(B), and F(P).
PubMed ID
16318569 View in PubMed
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Outcomes of using the internet for sexual purposes: fulfillment of sexual desires.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116313
Source
Sex Health. 2013 Mar;10(1):26-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Kristian Daneback
Anna Sevcikova
Sven-Axel Månsson
Michael W Ross
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. kristian.daneback@socwork.gu.se
Source
Sex Health. 2013 Mar;10(1):26-31
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Humans
Internet
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Sexual Behavior
Sweden
Abstract
The purpose of the current study was to examine the characteristics of those who report fulfillment of sexual desires as a result of internet use for sexual purposes and which sexually related online activities contribute to the fulfillment of sexual desires.
Data were collected through a questionnaire posted on Swedish-language websites in 2009. The sample comprised 1614 respondents who reported using the internet for sexual purposes, 62% women and 38% men.
The results showed that the majority of the respondents had their sexual desires fulfilled as a result of their sexually related activities on the internet; 21% to a great extent and 59% to a small extent, but 20% did not have their sexual desires fulfilled. Using a multinomial logistic regression analysis, respondents who had their sexual desires fulfilled to a small or great extent were each compared with those who did not have their sexual desires fulfilled at all. At the level of individual characteristics and sexual behaviours, those with no fulfillment of their sexual desires did not differ from those who had their sexual desires fulfilled, with the exceptions of age and masturbation. In comparison to fulfillment to a small extent, fulfillment of sexual desires to a great extent was predicted by a larger number of sexually related online activities that were based on interaction.
The findings suggest that the internet may contribute to fulfillment of sexual desires among a large internet population, irrespective of sex or sexual identity.
PubMed ID
23411161 View in PubMed
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Seventy-five years of masting and rodent population peaks in Norway: Why do wood mice not follow the rules?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280050
Source
Integr Zool. 2016 Sep;11(5):388-402
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2016
Author
Vidar Selås
Source
Integr Zool. 2016 Sep;11(5):388-402
Date
Sep-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Logistic Models
Murinae - physiology
Norway
Population Dynamics
Quercus - physiology
Seasons
Seeds
Temperature
Abstract
Wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) populations are expected to show a peak in autumn in the year after a mast year of sessile oak (Quercus petraea), because stored acorns increase winter survival. In Aust-Agder, South Norway, only 16 of 34 mast years from 1939-2014 were followed by a year with a peak in the wood mouse population. For many of the remaining instances, there rather was a minor peak 2 or 3 years after the mast. In multiple logistic regression models, the probability of a wood mouse population peak after a mast year of sessile oak was positively related to a snow-corrected temperature index of the previous winter and negatively to a small rodent population index of the previous autumn. The present study thus supports the hypothesis that longer periods with snow-free ground and subzero temperatures negatively affect wood mouse winter survival. Because it may be difficult for wood mice to survive on a diet consisting of acorns alone, the negative relationship with the rodent population index of the previous year is most likely caused by an over-exploitation of necessary alternative food resources, such as other plant seeds and arthropods. Stored acorns not utilized during one winter are assumed to benefit wood mice in a succeeding winter, giving a delayed population peak relative to the mast year.
PubMed ID
27059411 View in PubMed
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The cumulative effect of smoking at age 50, 60, and 70 on functional ability at age 75.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67218
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2004;32(4):296-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Nina Støvring
Kirsten Avlund
Kirsten Schultz-Larsen
Marianne Schroll
Author Affiliation
Centre for Elder Research, Hospital of Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark. nina.stoevring@post.tle.dk
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2004;32(4):296-302
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Denmark
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Abstract
AIMS: As elderly people form a steadily growing part of the population in most parts of the world we are in need of knowledge of the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on functional ability late in life. This study aims to examine the cumulative impact of smoking from age 50 to 70 on functional ability at age 75. METHODS: 387 men and women born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984, and 1989. Associations between smoking and functional ability were examined using multiple logistic regression analyses with cumulative smoking as determinant and physical activity, sex, basic school education, and household composition as possible confounders. RESULTS: There is an adverse relation between smoking and functional ability regardless of the time of examination or the ways of accumulating the smoking habits over the examinations. Cumulated former smokers have a larger risk of having reduced functional ability at age 75 (OR: 1.35 (1.13-1.61)) compared with never smokers. The odds ratios of reduced functional ability were 2.46 (1.44-4.17) among cumulated smokers of 1-14 grams of tobacco/day and 3.32 (1.63-6.72) among smokers of more than 14 grams of tobacco/day. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study stress the importance of continuing and strengthening efforts to reduce the prevalence of smokers in the population. Furthermore the results indicate that even after the 50th birthday it is possible to gain a healthier old age by abstaining from smoking.
PubMed ID
15370770 View in PubMed
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7171 records – page 1 of 718.