A new restless legs syndrome locus on chromosome 14 recently has been reported in one family of Italian origin. Our study aimed to replicate this finding and determine the importance of this locus in the French Canadian population. Markers spanning the region were genotyped in 14 large families and linkage assessed using two-point and multipoint logarithm of odds scores. Possible linkage to this locus was found in one of our kindreds providing support for the existence of this locus and indicating that this locus may be responsible for a small fraction of French Canadian restless legs syndrome.
Previous studies have suggested that a locus predisposing to specific reading disability (dyslexia) resides on chromosome 6p23-p21.3. We investigated 79 families having at least two siblings affected with phonological coding dyslexia, the most common form of reading disability (617 people genotyped, 294 affected), and we tested for linkage with the genetic markers reported to be linked to dyslexia in those studies. No evidence for linkage was found by LOD score analysis or affected-sib-pair methods. However, using the affected-pedigree-member (APM) method, we detected significant evidence for linkage and/or association with some markers when we used published allele frequencies with weighting of rarer alleles. APM results were not significant when we used marker allele frequencies estimated from parents. Furthermore, results were not significant with the more robust SIMIBD method using either published or parental marker frequencies. Finally, family-based association analysis using the AFBAC program showed no evidence for association with any marker. We conclude that the APM method should be used only with extreme caution, because it appears to have generated false-positive results. In summary, using a large data set with high power to detect linkage, we were unable to find evidence for linkage or association between phonological coding dyslexia and chromosome 6p markers.
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Jan;60(1):27-398981944
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;58(4):892-58644756
The GLC1A locus for autosomal dominant primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with juvenile onset (before 20 years) has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. Recently, a French-Canadian family was described in which both juvenile-onset and middle-age or early-onset POAG were observed and linked to GLC1A. We now describe a second POAG family with variable age of onset (range 11-51, median 36 years of age). Linkage to GLC1A was established with a maximum lod score of 6.21 at the D1S452 locus. A recombination event in a severely glaucomatous patient restricted the distal boundary of the GLC1A interval proximal to the AFM154xc9 marker. This study strengthens the idea that early-onset POAG may also be determined by the GLC1A genetic region.
Allergic rhinitis is a common disease of complex inheritance and is characterised by mucosal inflammation caused by allergen exposure. The genetics of closely related phenotypes such as asthma, atopy and to some extend atopic dermatitis has attracted attention in recent years. Genetic reports of allergic rhinitis on the contrary have as yet been most sparse. To identify candidate regions holding genes for allergic rhinitis we performed a total genome-scan on affected sib-pair families. From 100 Danish sib-pair families selected for allergy, families containing sib-pairs matching a phenotype definition of both clinical allergic rhinitis and confirmed specific allergy were chosen. Thirty-three affected sib-pair families qualified for the scan that was undertaken using 446 microsatellite markers. Non-parametric linkage results were obtained from MAPMAKER/SIBS computer program. The study revealed one major candidate region on chromosome 4q24-q27 (LOD=2.83) and eight minor candidate regions 2q12-q33, 3q13, 4p15-q12, 5q13-q15, 6p24-p23, 12p13, 22q13, and Xp21 (LOD=1.04-1.63) likely to contain susceptibility genes for allergic rhinitis. Our findings did not support a previous report of linkage of allergic rhinitis to chromosome 12q14-q24 but they added positive evidence to the asthma and atopy candidate regions 2q33 and 6p23. Further identification of the specific genes involved in allergic rhinitis will give opportunities for improved diagnosis and treatment.
Since the report of a double mutation at codons 670 and 671 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene identified in two Swedish families with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD), a carrier with dementia has died. Neuropathology confirmed the clinical diagnosis of AD. Genealogical investigations have confirmed that the two families are related to common founders. Two-point linkage analysis of the mutation versus the disease in the revised pedigree now gives a lod score of 7.62.
Putative prostate cancer susceptibility loci have recently been identified by genetic linkage analysis on chromosomes 1q24-25 (HPC1). 1q44.243 (PCaP), and Xq27-28 (HPCX). In order to estimate the genetic linkage in Icelandic prostate cancer families, we genotyped 241 samples from 87 families with eleven markers in the HPC1 region, six markers at PCaP, and eight at HPCX. Concurrently, we assessed allelic imbalance at the HPC1 and PCaP loci in selected tumors from the patients. For each of the candidate regions, the combined parametric and non-parametric LOD scores were strongly negative. Evidence for linkage allowing for genetic heterogeneity was also insignificant for all the regions. The results were negative irrespective of whether calculations were performed for the whole material or for a selected set of early age at onset families. The prevalence of allelic imbalance was relatively low in both the HPC1 (0%-9%) and PCaP (5%-20%) regions and was not elevated in tumors from positively linked families. Our studies indicate that the putative cancer susceptibility genes at chromosomes 1q24-25, 1q44.2-43, and Xq27-28 are unlikely to contribute significantly to hereditary prostate cancer in Iceland and that selective loss of the HPC1 and PCaP loci is a relatively rare somatic event in prostate cancers.
Psoriasis is known to be a heterogeneous disease with so far three reported major psoriasis susceptibility loci on chromosome 4q, 6p and 17q. In this study we investigated three reported gene locations by nonparametric and parametric linkage analysis in a large family set consisting of 104 families (153 sib pairs) from Sweden. We could confirm linkage to chromosome 6p. A maximum heterogeneous lod score of 2.78 was reached at locus D6S276 (alpha = 0.60). Allelic association studies within the HLA region indicated linkage disequilibrium at locus TNFbeta with a significant p value of 0.0009. Furthermore, we obtained weak evidence of linkage to the locus on chromosome 17q while no evidence of linkage could be found to the chromosome 4q region.
The breast-ovary cancer-family syndrome is a dominant predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries which has been mapped to chromosome region 17q12-q21. The majority, but not all, of breast-ovary cancer families show linkage to this susceptibility locus, designated BRCA1. We report here the results of a linkage analysis of 145 families with both breast and ovarian cancer. These families contain either a total of three or more cases of early-onset (before age 60 years) breast cancer or ovarian cancer. All families contained at least one case of ovarian cancer. Overall, an estimated 76% of the 145 families are linked to the BRCA1 locus. None of the 13 families with cases of male breast cancer appear to be linked, but it is estimated that 92% (95% confidence interval 76%-100%) of families with no male breast cancer and with two or more ovarian cancers are linked to BRCA1. These data suggest that the breast-ovarian cancer-family syndrome is genetically heterogeneous. However, the large majority of families with early-onset breast cancer and with two or more cases of ovarian cancer are likely to be due to BRCA1 mutations.
The results of a genomewide scan for genes conferring susceptibility to anxiety disorders in the Icelandic population are described. The aim of the study was to locate genes that predispose to anxiety by utilizing the extensive genealogical records and the relative homogeneity of the Icelandic population. Participants were recruited in two stages: (1) Initial case-identification by a population screening for anxiety disorders, using the Stamm Screening Questionnaire, was followed by aggregation into extended families, with the help of our genealogy database; and (2) those who fulfilled the diagnostic and family aggregation criteria underwent a more detailed diagnostic workup based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Screening for anxiety in close relatives also identified additional affected members within the families. After genotyping was performed with 976 microsatellite markers, affected-only linkage analysis was done, and allele-sharing LOD scores were calculated using the program Allegro. Linkage analysis of 25 extended families, in each of which at least one affected individual had panic disorder (PD), resulted in a LOD score of 4.18 at D9S271, on chromosome 9q31. The intermarker distance was 4.4 cM on average, whereas it was 1.5 cM in the linked region as additional markers were added to increase the information content. The linkage results may be relevant not only to PD but also to anxiety in general, since our linkage study included patients with other forms of anxiety.
The chromosome 19 apolipoprotein E/CI/CII gene cluster was examined for evidence of linkage to a familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) locus. The family groups studied were Volga German (VG), early-onset non-VG (ENVG; mean age at onset
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