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Absence of human bocavirus from deceased fetuses and their mothers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146525
Source
J Clin Virol. 2010 Feb;47(2):186-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Anita Riipinen
Elina Väisänen
Anne Lahtinen
Riitta Karikoski
Mika Nuutila
Heljä-Marja Surcel
Helena Taskinen
Klaus Hedman
Maria Söderlund-Venermo
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland. anita.riipinen@ttl.fi
Source
J Clin Virol. 2010 Feb;47(2):186-8
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - etiology
Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Female
Fetal Death - etiology
Fetus - virology
Finland - epidemiology
Heart - virology
Human bocavirus - isolation & purification
Humans
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Immunoglobulin M - blood
Liver - virology
Middle Aged
Parvoviridae Infections - epidemiology - virology
Placenta - virology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology - virology
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Young Adult
Abstract
The human bocavirus (HBoV), a newly discovered parvovirus, is closely related to the bovine parvovirus and the canine minute virus, which are known to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Another human parvovirus, B19, can lead to fetal hydrops, miscarriage and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD).
To determine the prevalence of HBoV DNA in aborted fetuses and IUFDs. The HBoV serology of the mothers was also studied.
We retrospectively studied all available fetuses (N=535) autopsied during 7/1992-12/1995, and 1/2003-12/2005 in Helsinki, Finland. All available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded fetal tissues - placenta, heart and liver - of 120 miscarriages, 169 IUFDs, and 246 induced abortions were studied by quantitative PCR. We also measured the HBoV IgM and IgG antibodies in the corresponding maternal sera (N=462) mostly of the first trimester. The IgM-positive sera underwent HBoV PCR.
None of the fetal tissues harbored HBoV DNA. A total of 97% (448/462) of the mothers were positive for IgG antibodies to HBoV, while only 0.9% (4/462) exhibited HBoV-specific IgM antibodies without viremia or respiratory symptoms. One IgM-positive mother had an unexplained fetal loss.
We did not find HBoV DNA in any of the deceased fetuses. Almost all pregnant women were HBoV-IgG positive.
PubMed ID
20031484 View in PubMed
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Alcoholic cirrhosis in Denmark - population-based incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rates between 1988 and 2005: a descriptive cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87157
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Jepsen Peter
Vilstrup Hendrik
Sørensen Henrik T
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. pj@dce.au.dk
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:3
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic - epidemiology - therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Sex Distribution
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Denmark has one of the highest alcohol consumption rates in Northern Europe. The overall per capita alcohol consumption has been stable in recent decades, but surveys have indicated that consumption has decreased in the young and increased in the old. However, there is no recent information on the epidemiology of alcoholic cirrhosis. We examined time trends in incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rates of alcoholic cirrhosis in Denmark between 1988 and 2005. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide population-based hospital registry to identify all Danish citizens with a hospital diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. We computed standardized incidence rates, prevalence and hospitalization rates of alcoholic cirrhosis within the Danish population. We also computed the number of hospitalizations per alcoholic cirrhosis patient per year. RESULTS: From 1988 to 1993, incidence rates for men and women of any age showed no clear trend, and after a 32 percent increase in 1994, rates were stable throughout 2005. In 2001-2005, the incidence rates were 265 and 118 per 1,000,000 per year for men and women, respectively, and the prevalence rates were 1,326 and 701 per 1,000,000. From 1994, incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rates decreased for men and women younger than 45 years and increased in the older population, although the latter finding might be partly explained by changes in coding practice. Men and women born around 1960 or later had progressively lower age-specific alcoholic cirrhosis incidence rates than the generations before them. From 1996 to 2005, the number of hospitalizations per alcoholic cirrhosis patient per year increased from 1.3 to 1.5 for men and from 1.1 to 1.2 for women. CONCLUSION: From 1988 to 2005, alcoholic cirrhosis put an increasing burden on the Danish healthcare system. However, the decreasing incidence rate in the population younger than 45 years from 1994 indicated that men and women born around 1960 or later had progressively lower incidence rates than the generations before them. Therefore, we expect the overall incidence and prevalence rates of alcoholic cirrhosis to decrease in the future.
PubMed ID
18261240 View in PubMed
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An epidemiologic study of hepatocellular carcinoma in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187668
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Nov-Dec;93(6):443-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Susie elSaadany
Martin Tepper
Yang Mao
Robert Semenciw
Antonio Giulivi
Author Affiliation
Health-Care Acquired Infections Division, Health Canada. susie_elsaadany@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Nov-Dec;93(6):443-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular - epidemiology - mortality
Female
Hepatitis B - epidemiology
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Least-Squares Analysis
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Male
Prevalence
Registries
Sex Factors
Abstract
To provide information on poorly described Canadian hepatocellular cancer epidemiology, we analyzed incident cases abstracted from the Canadian Cancer Registration Database (1969-1997) and Canadian annual death data (1969-1998). Age, sex, geographic distribution, and secular trends were described. Projection models were developed for the next decade.
Results indicated much higher incidence and mortality rates in males than females, with substantial increases for both with age. Age-standardized incidence rates increased an average of 3.4% per year in males, 1.2% per year in females (1969-1997). Age-standardized mortality rates increased an average of 1.48% in males, but decreased an average of 0.46% per year in females (1969-1998). Join-point analysis of the linear trends in the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates suggested that a new trend started to emerge about 1991. The fitted non-linear multiplicative model predicted the occurrence of 1,565 new cases and 802 deaths in the year 2010. HCC incidence was the highest in British Colombia, followed by Quebec, and the lowest in the Atlantic region.
Incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma have increased substantially, consistent with the reported increase in the prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections in recent decades.
PubMed ID
12448868 View in PubMed
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Appearance of hepatobiliary diseases in a population-based cohort with inflammatory bowel diseases (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort of the Uppsala Region).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271575
Source
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Aug;30(8):1288-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Anders Rönnblom
Tommy Holmström
Hans Tanghöj
Fredrik Rorsman
Daniel Sjöberg
Source
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Aug;30(8):1288-92
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alkaline Phosphatase - blood
Biomarkers - blood
Child
Cholangitis, Sclerosing - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality - surgery
Cohort Studies
Colitis, Ulcerative - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crohn Disease - epidemiology
Female
Hepatitis, Autoimmune - diagnosis - epidemiology
Humans
Liver Function Tests
Liver Transplantation - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Survival Rate
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To prospectively follow the evolution of hepatobiliary diseases in a population-based cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.
Between 2005 and 2009, 790 incident cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were registered in the Uppsala Health Region, corresponding to an average incidence of 20.0 and 9.9 new cases/100?000 inhabitants/year, respectively. Liver function tests were analyzed in 97.1% and the results of ensuing investigations were summarized.
Seventeen patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were diagnosed corresponding to an overall prevalence of 2.2% (ulcerative colitis 1.7% and Crohn's disease 3.0%, respectively). The median age at diagnosis was 25 years (interquartile range: 17.0-34.0). Among the 92 patients below 17 years of age, three had autoimmune hepatitis and three primary sclerosing cholangitis, summing up to a prevalence of 6.5% immune-mediated hepatobiliary diseases among the pediatric patients. Three patients have undergone liver transplantation and one died of colonic carcinoma. Ten patients have demonstrated persistent elevation of alkaline phosphatases but had a normal magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (two patients) or refused further investigation (one patient).
In this first large prospective population-based cohort of 526 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 264 with Crohn's disease, 17 cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis were found, among whom three (17%) so far have been liver transplanted and one has died of colon carcinoma. The average age of those affected by primary sclerosing cholangitis is considerably lower than usually reported. Ten patients had or have had elevated alkaline phosphatase without confirmed liver or biliary disease.
PubMed ID
25777994 View in PubMed
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Autoantibodies in Estonia and Sweden, populations with different responses to allergens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204174
Source
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1998 Oct;117(2):126-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1998
Author
R. Uibo
I. Talja
R. Jôgi
C. Janson
E. Björnsson
G. Boman
M. Mandel
B. Björkstén
Author Affiliation
Department of Immunology, Institute of General and Molecular Pathology, University of Tartu, Estonia.
Source
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1998 Oct;117(2):126-30
Date
Oct-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Allergens - immunology
Autoantibodies - analysis
Autoantigens - immunology
Estonia
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - immunology
Immunoglobulins - analysis
Kidney - immunology
Male
Microsomes, Liver - immunology
Parietal Cells, Gastric - immunology
Population
Prevalence
Reticulin - immunology
Sweden
T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer - immunology
Thyroid Gland - immunology
Abstract
There are substantial differences in immune-mediated disease prevalence between different countries and populations which cannot be explained by genetic variability.
To compare the prevalence of antinuclear (ANA), antimitochondrial, antireticulin, liver-kidney microsomal, parietal cell, thyroid microsomal and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies among adults aged 20-44 years in two towns, i.e. in Tartu, Estonia (n = 448) and in Uppsala, Sweden (n = 532) with a low and a high prevalence of allergy.
For autoantibody detection, standard indirect immunofluorescence tests on tissue and Chritidia lucilia antigenic preparations were used (sera were diluted starting from 1:10).
The prevalence of ANA was lower in Tartu than in Uppsala (3 vs. 10% among males and 11 vs. 16% among females; p
PubMed ID
9784656 View in PubMed
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Autoimmune hepatitis in children in Eastern Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123947
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Oct;55(4):376-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Joanna Vitfell-Pedersen
Marianne Hørby Jørgensen
Klaus Müller
Carsten Heilmann
Author Affiliation
Sarcoma Unit, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Oct;55(4):376-9
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Azathioprine - therapeutic use
Biopsy
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Hepatitis, Autoimmune - complications - drug therapy - pathology
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Humans
Immunosuppressive Agents - therapeutic use
Infant
Liver - pathology
Liver Cirrhosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Prednisolone - therapeutic use
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Sex Factors
Abstract
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in childhood is a progressive chronic inflammatory liver disease. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and biochemical characteristics of 33 paediatric patients diagnosed as having AIH with earlier described cohorts, and to examine the effect of early treatment strategies on the course of disease.
A population-based cohort of patients from January 1993 to September 2009 was identified prospectively, and the patient data were collected by a retrospective examination of the files.
Twenty-nine patients had type 1 AIH, 2 had type 2, and 2 could not be categorised. Among the 33 children, 16 (48.5%) were girls and 17 (51.5%) were boys. Twenty-three (69.7%) of the patients had symptoms at presentation indistinguishable from acute viral hepatitis, but in 16 (69.6%) of those the liver biopsy showed cirrhosis. Twenty (60.6%) patients were treated with prednisolone and azathioprine at the time of remission, whereas 8 (24.2%) were treated with prednisolone. One (3%) patient did not experience remission during the observation period.
The patients in our study appeared similar to previously published cohorts, although a female predominance was not observed. Our data suggest that early treatment including both prednisolone and azathioprine could be more effective than prednisolone alone, even if randomised controlled paediatric studies comparing these 2 different treatment regimens are needed.
Notes
Comment In: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Oct;55(4):36422644465
PubMed ID
22644464 View in PubMed
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The CAGE as a measure of hazardous drinking in the homeless.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87737
Source
Am J Addict. 2007 Nov-Dec;16(6):475-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Hesse Morten
Thiesen Henrik
Author Affiliation
Aarhus University, Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Copenhagen Division, Copenhagen, Denmark. mortenhesse@crf.dk
Source
Am J Addict. 2007 Nov-Dec;16(6):475-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alanine Transaminase - blood
Alcohol Drinking - blood - epidemiology - psychology
Alcoholism - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Alkaline Phosphatase - blood
Biological Markers - blood
Denmark - epidemiology
Erythrocyte Indices
Feasibility Studies
Female
Hepatitis C - blood - epidemiology
Homebound Persons - psychology
Humans
Liver Function Tests - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
gamma-Glutamyltransferase - blood
Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the validity of the CAGE questions as a measure of severe drinking in subjects at drop-in centers for the homeless, using biological markers of acute liver reaction to alcohol as the "gold standard." A sample of homeless men and women in Copenhagen were invited to participate in a study of health problems. Subjects were interviewed and blood samples were taken and screened for indicators of liver dysfunction (gamma-glutamyltransferase [gammaGT], mean corpuscular volume [MCV], alanine aminotransferase [ALAT], and alkaline phosphatase [Alpase]), and hepatitis C [HCV]. Scores on CAGE correlated strongly with years of heavy drinking (rho = 0.43, p 1 had quite extreme values on liver markers. Findings suggested that the CAGE was able to identify homeless drinkers whose drinking was significantly associated with increases in biomarkers associated with heavy drinking.
PubMed ID
18058413 View in PubMed
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Canadian home total parenteral nutrition registry: preliminary data on the patient population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160745
Source
Can J Gastroenterol. 2007 Oct;21(10):643-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Maitreyi Raman
Leah Gramlich
Scott Whittaker
Johane P Allard
Author Affiliation
University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.
Source
Can J Gastroenterol. 2007 Oct;21(10):643-8
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bone Diseases - metabolism
Canada - epidemiology
Catheterization, Central Venous
Chronic Disease
Female
Humans
Intestinal Diseases - therapy
Liver - drug effects
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Parenteral Nutrition, Home Total - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Quality of Life
Registries
Abstract
Long-term administration of home total parenteral nutrition (HTPN) has permitted patients with chronic intestinal failure to survive for prolonged periods of time. However, HTPN is associated with numerous complications, all of which increase morbidity and mortality. In Canada, a comprehensive review of the HTPN population has never been performed.
To report on the demographics, current HTPN practice and related complications in the Canadian HTPN population.
This was a cross-sectional study. Five HTPN programs in Canada participated. Patients' data were entered by the programs' TPN team into a Web site-based registry. A unique confidential record was created for each patient. Data were then downloaded into a Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp, USA) spreadsheet and imported into SPSS (SPSS Inc, USA) for statistical analysis.
One hundred fifty patients were entered into the registry (37.9% men and 62.1% women). The mean (+/- SD) age was 53.0+/-14 years and the duration requiring HTPN was 70.1+/-78.1 months. The mean body mass index before the onset of HTPN was 19.8+/-5.0 kg/m(2). The primary indication for HTPN was short bowel syndrome (60%) secondary to Crohn's disease (51.1%), followed by mesenteric ischemia (23.9%).
over one year, 62.7% of patients were hospitalized at least once, with 44% of hospitalizations related to TPN. In addition, 28.6% of patients had at least one catheter sepsis (double-lumen more than single-lumen; P=0.025) and 50% had at least one catheter change. Abnormal liver enzymes were documented in 27.4% of patients and metabolic bone disease in 60% of patients, and the mean Karnofsky score was 63.
In the present population sample, the data suggest that HTPN is associated with significant complications and health care utilization. These results support the use of a Canadian HTPN registry to better define the HTPN population, and to monitor complications for quality assurance and future research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17948134 View in PubMed
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Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk of Fatty Liver: The Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288156
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Sep;49(9):1834-1841
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Kristiina S Pälve
Katja Pahkala
Emmi Suomela
Heikki Aatola
Janne Hulkkonen
Markus Juonala
Terho Lehtimäki
Tapani Rönnemaa
Jorma S A Viikari
Mika Kähönen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Risto Telama
Tuija Tammelin
Olli T Raitakari
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Sep;49(9):1834-1841
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cardiorespiratory Fitness - physiology
Comorbidity
Fatty Liver - diagnostic imaging - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Oxygen consumption
Prevalence
Risk factors
Ultrasonography
Abstract
Fatty liver is an expanding health concern associated with metabolic disturbances and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies in animals have shown associations between fatty liver and cardiorespiratory fitness but limited data exist in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the links between cardiorespiratory fitness and fatty liver in a population-based sample of adults.
Participants were 463 adults (48% men) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a cycle ergometer exercise test as peak oxygen uptake (V?O2peak [mL·kg·min]) in 2008 to 2009. Hepatic ultrasonographic imaging was performed in 2011 to determine fatty liver.
Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with lower risk of fatty liver (1 mL·kg·min increase in V?O2peak: risk ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.93, P 80 cm in women and >94 cm in men) but fit (V?O2peak in the upper age- and sex-specific median) had lower prevalence of fatty liver than participants who were obese and unfit (below median), (11.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.0003).
In a population-based sample of adults, cardiorespiratory fitness is strongly, inversely and independently related with the risk of fatty liver. Importantly, the association is evident also among obese.
PubMed ID
28398943 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk profile of patients with acute liver failure after liver transplantation when compared with the general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146176
Source
Transplantation. 2010 Jan 15;89(1):61-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-15-2010
Author
Fredrik Aberg
Antti Jula
Krister Höckerstedt
Helena Isoniemi
Author Affiliation
Transplantation and Liver Surgery Clinic, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Fredrik.Aberg@helsinki.fi
Source
Transplantation. 2010 Jan 15;89(1):61-8
Date
Jan-15-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Coronary Disease - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Dyslipidemias - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lipids - blood
Liver Failure, Acute - complications - epidemiology - etiology
Liver Transplantation - adverse effects
Male
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Time Factors
Abstract
As opposed to most solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with acute liver failure exhibit a pretransplant health status more comparable with the general population, and any posttransplant cardiovascular risk excess should thus be more attributable to transplantation-related factors alone.
This study compared the cardiovascular risk of 77 consecutive patients with acute liver failure at 5 years after liver transplantation with that of the general population using age, sex, and residence area-standardized prevalence ratios (SPR).
At least one cardiovascular risk factor developed in 92% of patients. Treated hypertension, observed in 71% of patients at 5 years, was more common among patients than controls (SPR, 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.06-3.55), whereas the 61% prevalence of dyslipidemia and 3% prevalence of impaired fasting glucose were significantly less frequent among patients (SPR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92 and SPR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.04-1.00). The 5-year prevalence of diabetes (10%), overweight (32%), and obesity (13%) deviated nonsignificantly from controls (SPR 1.90, 0.85, and 0.58). Antibody therapy associated with a 1.49-fold increase in the risk of hypertension (95% CI, 1.15-1.94) and a 6.43-fold increase in the risk of diabetes (95% CI, 1.18-34.9). Immunosuppression-type, steroids, acute rejection, retransplantation, or graft steatosis revealed nonsignificant risk alterations.
Liver transplantation and associated immunosuppression evidently cause hypertension, and possibly elicit diabetes in susceptible individuals. Conversely, the often reported transplantation-associated increased burden of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia might relate mostly to other factors.
PubMed ID
20061920 View in PubMed
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115 records – page 1 of 12.