The human bocavirus (HBoV), a newly discovered parvovirus, is closely related to the bovine parvovirus and the canine minute virus, which are known to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Another human parvovirus, B19, can lead to fetal hydrops, miscarriage and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD).
To determine the prevalence of HBoV DNA in aborted fetuses and IUFDs. The HBoV serology of the mothers was also studied.
We retrospectively studied all available fetuses (N=535) autopsied during 7/1992-12/1995, and 1/2003-12/2005 in Helsinki, Finland. All available formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded fetal tissues - placenta, heart and liver - of 120 miscarriages, 169 IUFDs, and 246 induced abortions were studied by quantitative PCR. We also measured the HBoV IgM and IgG antibodies in the corresponding maternal sera (N=462) mostly of the first trimester. The IgM-positive sera underwent HBoV PCR.
None of the fetal tissues harbored HBoV DNA. A total of 97% (448/462) of the mothers were positive for IgG antibodies to HBoV, while only 0.9% (4/462) exhibited HBoV-specific IgM antibodies without viremia or respiratory symptoms. One IgM-positive mother had an unexplained fetal loss.
We did not find HBoV DNA in any of the deceased fetuses. Almost all pregnant women were HBoV-IgG positive.
BACKGROUND: Denmark has one of the highest alcohol consumption rates in Northern Europe. The overall per capita alcohol consumption has been stable in recent decades, but surveys have indicated that consumption has decreased in the young and increased in the old. However, there is no recent information on the epidemiology of alcoholic cirrhosis. We examined time trends in incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rates of alcoholic cirrhosis in Denmark between 1988 and 2005. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide population-based hospital registry to identify all Danish citizens with a hospital diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. We computed standardized incidence rates, prevalence and hospitalization rates of alcoholic cirrhosis within the Danish population. We also computed the number of hospitalizations per alcoholic cirrhosis patient per year. RESULTS: From 1988 to 1993, incidence rates for men and women of any age showed no clear trend, and after a 32 percent increase in 1994, rates were stable throughout 2005. In 2001-2005, the incidence rates were 265 and 118 per 1,000,000 per year for men and women, respectively, and the prevalence rates were 1,326 and 701 per 1,000,000. From 1994, incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rates decreased for men and women younger than 45 years and increased in the older population, although the latter finding might be partly explained by changes in coding practice. Men and women born around 1960 or later had progressively lower age-specific alcoholic cirrhosis incidence rates than the generations before them. From 1996 to 2005, the number of hospitalizations per alcoholic cirrhosis patient per year increased from 1.3 to 1.5 for men and from 1.1 to 1.2 for women. CONCLUSION: From 1988 to 2005, alcoholic cirrhosis put an increasing burden on the Danish healthcare system. However, the decreasing incidence rate in the population younger than 45 years from 1994 indicated that men and women born around 1960 or later had progressively lower incidence rates than the generations before them. Therefore, we expect the overall incidence and prevalence rates of alcoholic cirrhosis to decrease in the future.
To provide information on poorly described Canadian hepatocellular cancer epidemiology, we analyzed incident cases abstracted from the Canadian Cancer Registration Database (1969-1997) and Canadian annual death data (1969-1998). Age, sex, geographic distribution, and secular trends were described. Projection models were developed for the next decade.
Results indicated much higher incidence and mortality rates in males than females, with substantial increases for both with age. Age-standardized incidence rates increased an average of 3.4% per year in males, 1.2% per year in females (1969-1997). Age-standardized mortality rates increased an average of 1.48% in males, but decreased an average of 0.46% per year in females (1969-1998). Join-point analysis of the linear trends in the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates suggested that a new trend started to emerge about 1991. The fitted non-linear multiplicative model predicted the occurrence of 1,565 new cases and 802 deaths in the year 2010. HCC incidence was the highest in British Colombia, followed by Quebec, and the lowest in the Atlantic region.
Incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma have increased substantially, consistent with the reported increase in the prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections in recent decades.
To prospectively follow the evolution of hepatobiliary diseases in a population-based cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.
Between 2005 and 2009, 790 incident cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were registered in the Uppsala Health Region, corresponding to an average incidence of 20.0 and 9.9 new cases/100?000 inhabitants/year, respectively. Liver function tests were analyzed in 97.1% and the results of ensuing investigations were summarized.
Seventeen patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were diagnosed corresponding to an overall prevalence of 2.2% (ulcerative colitis 1.7% and Crohn's disease 3.0%, respectively). The median age at diagnosis was 25 years (interquartile range: 17.0-34.0). Among the 92 patients below 17 years of age, three had autoimmune hepatitis and three primary sclerosing cholangitis, summing up to a prevalence of 6.5% immune-mediated hepatobiliary diseases among the pediatric patients. Three patients have undergone liver transplantation and one died of colonic carcinoma. Ten patients have demonstrated persistent elevation of alkaline phosphatases but had a normal magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (two patients) or refused further investigation (one patient).
In this first large prospective population-based cohort of 526 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 264 with Crohn's disease, 17 cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis were found, among whom three (17%) so far have been liver transplanted and one has died of colon carcinoma. The average age of those affected by primary sclerosing cholangitis is considerably lower than usually reported. Ten patients had or have had elevated alkaline phosphatase without confirmed liver or biliary disease.
There are substantial differences in immune-mediated disease prevalence between different countries and populations which cannot be explained by genetic variability.
To compare the prevalence of antinuclear (ANA), antimitochondrial, antireticulin, liver-kidney microsomal, parietal cell, thyroid microsomal and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies among adults aged 20-44 years in two towns, i.e. in Tartu, Estonia (n = 448) and in Uppsala, Sweden (n = 532) with a low and a high prevalence of allergy.
For autoantibody detection, standard indirect immunofluorescence tests on tissue and Chritidia lucilia antigenic preparations were used (sera were diluted starting from 1:10).
The prevalence of ANA was lower in Tartu than in Uppsala (3 vs. 10% among males and 11 vs. 16% among females; p
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in childhood is a progressive chronic inflammatory liver disease. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and biochemical characteristics of 33 paediatric patients diagnosed as having AIH with earlier described cohorts, and to examine the effect of early treatment strategies on the course of disease.
A population-based cohort of patients from January 1993 to September 2009 was identified prospectively, and the patient data were collected by a retrospective examination of the files.
Twenty-nine patients had type 1 AIH, 2 had type 2, and 2 could not be categorised. Among the 33 children, 16 (48.5%) were girls and 17 (51.5%) were boys. Twenty-three (69.7%) of the patients had symptoms at presentation indistinguishable from acute viral hepatitis, but in 16 (69.6%) of those the liver biopsy showed cirrhosis. Twenty (60.6%) patients were treated with prednisolone and azathioprine at the time of remission, whereas 8 (24.2%) were treated with prednisolone. One (3%) patient did not experience remission during the observation period.
The patients in our study appeared similar to previously published cohorts, although a female predominance was not observed. Our data suggest that early treatment including both prednisolone and azathioprine could be more effective than prednisolone alone, even if randomised controlled paediatric studies comparing these 2 different treatment regimens are needed.
The aim of this study was to test the validity of the CAGE questions as a measure of severe drinking in subjects at drop-in centers for the homeless, using biological markers of acute liver reaction to alcohol as the "gold standard." A sample of homeless men and women in Copenhagen were invited to participate in a study of health problems. Subjects were interviewed and blood samples were taken and screened for indicators of liver dysfunction (gamma-glutamyltransferase [gammaGT], mean corpuscular volume [MCV], alanine aminotransferase [ALAT], and alkaline phosphatase [Alpase]), and hepatitis C [HCV]. Scores on CAGE correlated strongly with years of heavy drinking (rho = 0.43, p 1 had quite extreme values on liver markers. Findings suggested that the CAGE was able to identify homeless drinkers whose drinking was significantly associated with increases in biomarkers associated with heavy drinking.
Long-term administration of home total parenteral nutrition (HTPN) has permitted patients with chronic intestinal failure to survive for prolonged periods of time. However, HTPN is associated with numerous complications, all of which increase morbidity and mortality. In Canada, a comprehensive review of the HTPN population has never been performed.
To report on the demographics, current HTPN practice and related complications in the Canadian HTPN population.
This was a cross-sectional study. Five HTPN programs in Canada participated. Patients' data were entered by the programs' TPN team into a Web site-based registry. A unique confidential record was created for each patient. Data were then downloaded into a Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp, USA) spreadsheet and imported into SPSS (SPSS Inc, USA) for statistical analysis.
One hundred fifty patients were entered into the registry (37.9% men and 62.1% women). The mean (+/- SD) age was 53.0+/-14 years and the duration requiring HTPN was 70.1+/-78.1 months. The mean body mass index before the onset of HTPN was 19.8+/-5.0 kg/m(2). The primary indication for HTPN was short bowel syndrome (60%) secondary to Crohn's disease (51.1%), followed by mesenteric ischemia (23.9%).
over one year, 62.7% of patients were hospitalized at least once, with 44% of hospitalizations related to TPN. In addition, 28.6% of patients had at least one catheter sepsis (double-lumen more than single-lumen; P=0.025) and 50% had at least one catheter change. Abnormal liver enzymes were documented in 27.4% of patients and metabolic bone disease in 60% of patients, and the mean Karnofsky score was 63.
In the present population sample, the data suggest that HTPN is associated with significant complications and health care utilization. These results support the use of a Canadian HTPN registry to better define the HTPN population, and to monitor complications for quality assurance and future research.
Cites: Health Technol Assess. 1997;1(1):i-iii, 1-599414540
Fatty liver is an expanding health concern associated with metabolic disturbances and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies in animals have shown associations between fatty liver and cardiorespiratory fitness but limited data exist in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the links between cardiorespiratory fitness and fatty liver in a population-based sample of adults.
Participants were 463 adults (48% men) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a cycle ergometer exercise test as peak oxygen uptake (V?O2peak [mL·kg·min]) in 2008 to 2009. Hepatic ultrasonographic imaging was performed in 2011 to determine fatty liver.
Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with lower risk of fatty liver (1 mL·kg·min increase in V?O2peak: risk ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.93, P 80 cm in women and >94 cm in men) but fit (V?O2peak in the upper age- and sex-specific median) had lower prevalence of fatty liver than participants who were obese and unfit (below median), (11.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.0003).
In a population-based sample of adults, cardiorespiratory fitness is strongly, inversely and independently related with the risk of fatty liver. Importantly, the association is evident also among obese.
As opposed to most solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with acute liver failure exhibit a pretransplant health status more comparable with the general population, and any posttransplant cardiovascular risk excess should thus be more attributable to transplantation-related factors alone.
This study compared the cardiovascular risk of 77 consecutive patients with acute liver failure at 5 years after liver transplantation with that of the general population using age, sex, and residence area-standardized prevalence ratios (SPR).
At least one cardiovascular risk factor developed in 92% of patients. Treated hypertension, observed in 71% of patients at 5 years, was more common among patients than controls (SPR, 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.06-3.55), whereas the 61% prevalence of dyslipidemia and 3% prevalence of impaired fasting glucose were significantly less frequent among patients (SPR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92 and SPR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.04-1.00). The 5-year prevalence of diabetes (10%), overweight (32%), and obesity (13%) deviated nonsignificantly from controls (SPR 1.90, 0.85, and 0.58). Antibody therapy associated with a 1.49-fold increase in the risk of hypertension (95% CI, 1.15-1.94) and a 6.43-fold increase in the risk of diabetes (95% CI, 1.18-34.9). Immunosuppression-type, steroids, acute rejection, retransplantation, or graft steatosis revealed nonsignificant risk alterations.
Liver transplantation and associated immunosuppression evidently cause hypertension, and possibly elicit diabetes in susceptible individuals. Conversely, the often reported transplantation-associated increased burden of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia might relate mostly to other factors.