This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
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1. The O-dealkylation of seven 7-alkoxyquinoline derivatives by human hepatic and placental microsomes and the effect of maternal cigarette smoking on placental 7-alkoxyquinoline metabolism was studied. 2. None of several monoclonal antibodies to isoenzymes of cytochrome P450 had a clear effect on metabolism of the compounds by liver microsomes. 3. Maternal cigarette smoking induced the O-dealkylation of all of the 7-alkoxyquinoline derivatives, being greatest for 7-butoxy- and 7-benzyloxyquinoline. 4. Placental 7-alkoxyquinoline metabolism induced by smoking was partially inhibited by the monoclonal antibody 1-7-1 raised against 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver P450. 5. None of the 7-alkoxyquinoline O-dealkylations could be assigned specifically to any known P450 isoenzyme in human liver or placenta.
In Finland during the period 1972-1983, there were 3,564 severe traffic accidents involving one or more victims dying within 30 days of the accident. Forty-two of the victims had been wearing a seatbelt and had an abdominal trauma as the main cause of death or as first diagnosis of injury. Small intestine and colon injuries were more common in the severely injured victims than was the case with the fatally injured ones and in these accidents the injury mechanism was always deceleration or contusion, which was in most cases caused by the seatbelt. Liver injuries seem to be the major abdominal cause of fatality, and in the fatally injured group, half of the victims sustained the fatal abdominal injury through gross crushing impact. When the direction of the impact was analyzed, all the victims seated on the receiving side of the vehicle in lateral impact collisions sustained an abdominal injury with fatal outcome. It seems that the seatbelt is less effective in protecting wearers from severe or fatal abdominal injuries in lateral impact collisions.
BACKGROUND: Wilson's disease is associated with heavy copper overload, primarily in the liver. Copper is a toxic metal, and might be expected to be associated with cancer induction, as iron is in haemochromatosis. However, liver cancer is currently believed to be extremely rare in this disease, and other intra-abdominal malignancies have not been reported. AIM: To assess the frequency of abdominal malignant disease in patients with Wilson's disease on long-term follow-up. DESIGN: Retrospective study in two specialist Wilson's disease clinics: Cambridge/London and Uppsala. METHODS: We reviewed the case records of 363 patients seen at three centres: Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, 1955-1987; the Middlesex Hospital, London, 1987-2000; and the University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, 1966-2002. Patients were grouped by length of follow-up: 10-19 years; 20-29 years; 30-39 years; and 40 years or more. RESULTS: No cancers were seen in patients followed for
Studies have been made in 1407 patients of the causes, the organs involved and the outcome of injury to the abdomen in patients needing admission to hospital in an area of Southern Sweden, between 1950 and the end of 1979. The proportion of female patients and those aged over 60 increased significantly. The seasonal distribution of the injuries showed significant change, with a drop in the initially high frequency sustained during the summer months. Penetrating injuries were rare, but increased in the 1970s. Road traffic accidents as the cause of abdominal injuries rose to a maximum of 56 per cent in the late 1960s. The numbers of injured organs and the frequency of other associated injuries rose gradually until the mid-1970s, after which there was a slight decrease. The spleen, liver and large blood vessels were the organs which were increasingly often injured. The annual incidence of various visceral injuries per 100 000 population was calculated. The number of patients with a delay of at least 24 hours before operation fell significantly and there was a tendency to shorter hospital stay. The mortality curve showed a peak in the late 1960s.
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography with a newly developed sonographic contrast medium as a means of guidance for percutaneous ablation therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma lesions not detected by conventional sonography. METHODS: We examined 85 patients with 108 hepatocellular carcinoma lesions that were identified as hypervascular by multidetector-row computed tomography by using contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography after injection of Sonazoid (GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway), a lipid-stabilized suspension of a perfluorobutane gas microbubble contrast agent. We scanned the whole liver by this modality at a low mechanical index in the late phase to detect lesions not detected by conventional sonography and then scanned the lesions again by this modality at a high mechanical index to visualize tumor vessels and enhancement. We also performed percutaneous ablation therapy guided by this modality to treat viable hepatocellular carcinoma lesions that could not be detected by conventional sonography. RESULTS: Conventional sonography identified 90 (83%) of 108 hepatocellular carcinoma lesions; 15 (14%) additional viable lesions not detected by conventional sonography were detected in the late phase of contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography at a low mechanical index, and tumor vessels and enhancement were observed in the late phase at a high mechanical index. Contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography diagnosed 105 (97%) of the 108 viable hepatocellular carcinoma lesions, and 14 (93%) of the 15 lesions not detected by conventional sonography were successfully treated by percutaneous ablation therapy guided by this modality. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced harmonic gray scale sonography is useful for guidance of percutaneous ablation therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma lesions not detected by conventional sonography.
We assessed changes in skeletal muscle energy metabolism by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and oxygen supply by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), after exercise and after administration of glucose and a branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), in healthy volunteers and patients with liver cirrhosis. As for the patients with liver cirrhosis, 4 were classified in Child-Pugh Grade A and the other 4 in Grade B. In patients with liver cirrhosis, the intramuscular pH and PCr index (PCr/PCr + Pi) were lower than in healthy subjects after exercise in the fasting state; the deltapH and deltaPCr index were statistically siginificant (p
ABO incompatible (ABO-In) liver transplant remains a controversial solution to acute liver failure in adults. Adult liver recipients with acute liver failure or severely decompensated end-stage disease, intubated and/or in the intensive care unit, were grouped as ABO-In (n = 14), ABO-compatible (n = 29, ABO-C) and ABO-identical (n = 65, ABO-Id). ABO-In received quadruple immunosuppression with antibody-depleting induction agents (except two), calcineurin inhibitors, antimetabolites and steroids. No significant difference of patient and graft survivals was observed among ABO-In, ABO-C and ABO-Id: graft survivals were 64%, 62% and 67%, respectively, in 1 year and 56%, 54% and 60%, respectively, in 5 years; patient survivals 86%, 69% and 67%, respectively, in 1 year and 77%, 61% and 62%, respectively, in 5 years. Three ABO-In grafts were lost (one hyper-acute rejection and two hepatic artery thrombosis). Surgical and infectious complications were similarly distributed between groups, except the hepatic artery thrombosis, more frequent in ABO-In (2, 14%) than ABO-I (1, 1.5%, P
The promoter sequence variant -480T in the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) has been shown to be significantly associated with low post-heparin hepatic lipase activity. Some studies have also found that the -480T variant is associated with elevation in plasma HDL cholesterol. We tested for associations of LIPC -480T with plasma lipoprotein traits in samples taken from three distinct Canadian populations: 657 Alberta Hutterites, 328 Ontario Oji-Cree and 210 Keewatin Inuit. Plasma HL activity was not available for analyses. The LIPC -480T allele frequencies in these three groups, respectively, were 0.219, 0.527 and 0.383, and the prevalence of LIPC -480T/T homozygotes was, respectively, 0.042, 0.274 and 0.167. No significant association was found between LIPC -480T and plasma HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein AI concentration, after adjusting for covariates including gender and body mass index. There was no consistent relationship between the population mean plasma HDL cholesterol concentration and the population LIPC -480T frequency. Our findings are consistent with the idea that the common promoter variation in LIPC, which has been reported to be associated with variation in post heparin HL activity and HDL triglyceride concentration, is not always associated with variation in plasma HDL cholesterol concentration, possibly due to yet unspecified environmental or genetic factors.