Hepatitis type B is hyperendemic in Greenland with serologic evidence of infection in 54% of adults and a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier rate of 7--25%. The impact of this infection rate on the occurrence of cirrhosis and primary liver cancer (PLC) was studied. Mortality rates for cirrhosis were obtained from official mortality statistics, 1951--1975. PLC was identified by a study of all biopsy and necropsy material taken in the study area during the same period. Neither cirrhosis nor PLC was found to be a more prevalent cause of death in this population than in Northern Europe where hepatitis B is at least 10-fold less prevalent. It is concluded that hepatitis B infection per se does not contribute significantly to the development of cirrhosis or to PLC, at least in the Eskimo population of Greenland.