In the period 2000?–?2011, chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV infection) was primarily treated with a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. New antiviral drugs, which are effective but very expensive, are in the process of replacing this regimen. We have investigated the results pegylated interferon and ribavirin have yielded in ordinary clinical practice and examined the part this treatment may play in the near future.
We included in this retrospective study HCV-RNA-positive, treatment-naive patients at Stavanger University Hospital, Akershus University Hospital and Østfold Hospital who received at least one dose of pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin in the period 2000?–?2011. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response (SVR). Predictors for SVR were identified by means of logistic regression analysis.
Of 588 included patients, 69.6% (409/588) achieved SVR, 14.3% (84/588) suffered relapse and 16.1% (95/588) showed non-response. In a multivariate analysis, genotypes 2 or 3 and low age at treatment start were independent predictors of SVR. A total of 85.4% of patients aged = 40 years with genotype 2 or 3 had SVR.
We found good results for treatment of young patients with genotype 2 or 3 with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Low age and viral genotype were predictors of sustained virologic response (SVR).
We studied prevalence and incidence of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis in a Norwegian population. A search in patient databases was performed and medical records from the period 1985-94 were reviewed. Commonly accepted diagnostic criteria were used for inclusion. All three diseases were found to be rare, with a marked female preponderance in primary biliary cirrhosis (female 21/male 0) and to a lesser extent in autoimmune hepatitis (female 20/male 9). The age distribution shows that autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis are diagnosed in patients who are on an average 12 years younger than patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The mean annual incidence was 1.6/100,000 for autoimmune hepatitis, 1.2/100,000 for primary biliary cirrhosis and 0.7/100,000 for primary sclerosing cholangitis. The end of study point prevalence was 14/100,000, 12/100,000 and 5.6/100,000, respectively.
Patients with chronic intestinal failure are treated primarily with parenteral nutrition, often for many years. If serious complications arise for intravenous nutritional therapy, it is possible to perform intestinal or multi-organ transplantation in selected patients. We have established a collaboration with Professor Michael Olausson at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg and Professor Andreas Tzakis at the Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, USA, to provide an option for Norwegian patients with chronic intestinal failure.
Retrospective long-term study of seven patients (five in Gothenburg and two in Miami) with chronic intestinal failure who underwent intestinal or multi-organ transplantation (ventricle, duodenum, pancreas and small intestine) in the period 2001-2009. At the same time, liver and kidney transplantations were performed on six and two patients, respectively.
Four of seven patients are alive and have a good quality of life 24-120 months after the transplantation. The graft function is satisfactory, so that the patients' food intake is mainly oral. Three patients died following a serious infection one, ten and 24 months, respectively, after transplantation took place.
Intestinal and multi-organ transplantation is a demanding and expensive treatment. Life-long multi-disciplinary follow-up of the patients is necessary after the transplantation in order to ensure early diagnosis of rejection and infections. Collaboration with international centres has given Norwegian patients with chronic intestinal failure an option of transplantation with satisfactory long-term results.
BACKGROUND: Liver resection is an established treatment for malignancies like colorectal metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Indications and outcomes of liver resection at the National Hospital, Oslo, Norway was studied retrospectively in 226 patients operated between 1977 and 1999. RESULTS: The main indication for surgery was colorectal metastases (n = 137). The frequency of liver resection for colorectal malignancies was
A liver transplant program was established in Norway in 1984, and until March 1999 200 liver transplantations have been carried out. Data for these 200 consecutive patients are briefly outlined with emphasis on survival. Relevant data are also given from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry (NLTR), the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR) and from United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Future trends and potential advances in liver transplantation are briefly discussed. One-year and three-year survival rates for Norwegian patients have increased markedly over the years and were 85% and 75% respectively for the 1995-98 period. The number of liver transplantations per million population per year was 3.4 in Norway, 7.8 in Sweden, 5.7 in Finland and 5.4 in Denmark (1990-98). The low number of liver transplantations in Norway warrants attention. It is possible that some patients with end stage liver disease have not been offered this treatment modality. Monitoring of results and active participation in international liver transplant registries like NLTR and ELTR is an important quality control instrument.
A total of 114 liver transplantations were performed in 106 patients in Norway during 1984-1994. Survival after one year was 65% and after three years 57%. The most frequent causes of death were infections and rejections. The survival rate improved considerably during the period, and after 1990 the 1 year survival was 70%. Approximately 2/3 of the patients return to work or education. Very few patients die later than 12 months after the transplantation. The most frequent indications were primary biliary cirrhosis, metabolic liver disease, primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune cirrhosis and fulminant liver failure. The number of liver transplantations (approximately 4 per million inhabitants) is lower in Norway than in the other Nordic countries. The number should be increased to 7-8 per million inhabitants.
In Norway, liver transplantation has been the treatment of choice for irreversible acute and chronic liver failure for 25 years. The aim of this article is to present a summary of the results obtained.
All liver transplants performed in Norway in the period 25.02.84-31.12.08 have been reviewed retrospectively with respect to patient and donor epidemiology, survival and recurrence.
651 transplants have been performed in this period. The annual number of transplants increased gradually up to the year 2000 (31), and more steeply afterwards - to 79 in 2008. Also the number of organ donations has increased and reached 98 (20 pr. million inh.) in 2008. 5-year patient survival was 53 % in the period 1984-1994. In the period 2001-2008, 1-year survival was 90 % and 5-year survival was 83 %.
The gradual improvement of results should be interpreted in light of improvements within transplant surgery, medicine and anaesthesiology and the increased local experience due to the increasing number of transplants performed. The transplant centre at Rikshospitalet has developed into being among the largest of its kind within the Nordic Countries and the results compare well with the best international data.
Erratum In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2010 Feb 25;130(4):365
Erratum In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2010 Mar 25;130(6):593