This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
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1. The O-dealkylation of seven 7-alkoxyquinoline derivatives by human hepatic and placental microsomes and the effect of maternal cigarette smoking on placental 7-alkoxyquinoline metabolism was studied. 2. None of several monoclonal antibodies to isoenzymes of cytochrome P450 had a clear effect on metabolism of the compounds by liver microsomes. 3. Maternal cigarette smoking induced the O-dealkylation of all of the 7-alkoxyquinoline derivatives, being greatest for 7-butoxy- and 7-benzyloxyquinoline. 4. Placental 7-alkoxyquinoline metabolism induced by smoking was partially inhibited by the monoclonal antibody 1-7-1 raised against 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver P450. 5. None of the 7-alkoxyquinoline O-dealkylations could be assigned specifically to any known P450 isoenzyme in human liver or placenta.
Ten cases of angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride workers from a plant in Shawinigan, Québec, are reported. The author insist mostly on the occupational history of these workers and on the morphologic description of the lesions. A pathogenic hypothesis is submitted.
There is a lack of systematic nephrographic studies on epidemic nephritis (EN). We studied 10 patients with EN using [99Tcm]MAG3 gamma camera nephrography and followed up 9 of them 22-68 days later when they had clinically recovered. Variables for renal clearance of [99Tcm]MAG3 and the retention of radioactivity in the kidneys and blood were calculated. In all patients renal function was impaired acutely. There was marked reconstitution of renal function in the control studies. [99Tcm]MAG3 clearance was inversely related to serum creatinine. On visual inspection the nephrograms showed no focal changes. Nephrography was more sensitive than sonography at identifying renal impairment. [99Tcm]MAG3 nephrography is a sensitive method for identifying renal involvement and reconstitution of renal function in EN. It may be a valuable adjunct to the diagnostic arsenal, especially in nonendemic areas where EN occurs only sporadically and where there may be diagnostic uncertainty in patients presenting acutely with EN.
The alpha spectrometry measurements of specific activity of 238Pu and 239Pu in urine from bioassay examinations of 1,013 workers employed at the radiochemical and plutonium production facilities of the Mayak Production Association and in autopsy specimens of lung, liver, and skeleton from 85 former nuclear workers who died between 1974-2009, are summarized.The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in the body and excreta has not changed with time in workers involved in production of weapons-grade plutonium production (e.g., the plutonium production facility and the former radiochemical facility). The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in individuals exposed to plutonium isotopes at the newer Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant ranged from 0.13% up to 27.5% based on the autopsy data. No statistically significant differences between 238Pu and 239Pu in distribution by the main organs of plutonium deposition were found in the Mayak workers. Based on the bioassay data,the fraction of 238Pu activity in urine is on average 38-69% of the total activity of 238Pu and 239Pu, which correlates with the isotopic composition in workplace air sampled at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. In view of the higher specific activity of 238Pu, the contribution of 238Pu to the total internal dose, particularly in the skeleton and liver, might be expected to continue to increase, and continued surveillance is recommended.
In Finland during the period 1972-1983, there were 3,564 severe traffic accidents involving one or more victims dying within 30 days of the accident. Forty-two of the victims had been wearing a seatbelt and had an abdominal trauma as the main cause of death or as first diagnosis of injury. Small intestine and colon injuries were more common in the severely injured victims than was the case with the fatally injured ones and in these accidents the injury mechanism was always deceleration or contusion, which was in most cases caused by the seatbelt. Liver injuries seem to be the major abdominal cause of fatality, and in the fatally injured group, half of the victims sustained the fatal abdominal injury through gross crushing impact. When the direction of the impact was analyzed, all the victims seated on the receiving side of the vehicle in lateral impact collisions sustained an abdominal injury with fatal outcome. It seems that the seatbelt is less effective in protecting wearers from severe or fatal abdominal injuries in lateral impact collisions.
BACKGROUND: Wilson's disease is associated with heavy copper overload, primarily in the liver. Copper is a toxic metal, and might be expected to be associated with cancer induction, as iron is in haemochromatosis. However, liver cancer is currently believed to be extremely rare in this disease, and other intra-abdominal malignancies have not been reported. AIM: To assess the frequency of abdominal malignant disease in patients with Wilson's disease on long-term follow-up. DESIGN: Retrospective study in two specialist Wilson's disease clinics: Cambridge/London and Uppsala. METHODS: We reviewed the case records of 363 patients seen at three centres: Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, 1955-1987; the Middlesex Hospital, London, 1987-2000; and the University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, 1966-2002. Patients were grouped by length of follow-up: 10-19 years; 20-29 years; 30-39 years; and 40 years or more. RESULTS: No cancers were seen in patients followed for
It has been hypothesized that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and adipokines and thereby exposes the liver to fat accumulation. The authors aimed to evaluate current epidemiologic evidence for an association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Clinical and epidemiologic studies with data on abdominal fat and liver fat content were reviewed. Studies using waist circumference to estimate abdominal fat mass suggested a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Studies using imaging methods suggested a direct association between intraabdominal fat and liver fat content, but not between subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat content. In conclusion, clinical and epidemiologic studies of abdominal fat and liver fat content suggest a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content which is probably accounted for by visceral fat. However, results from the included studies do not allow strong conclusions regarding the temporal sequence of events. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to obtain additional information on associations and mechanisms. Both abdominal fat depots and other body compartments of interest should be included to further investigate the association between specific fat depots and liver fat content. Biomarkers may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.
Studies have been made in 1407 patients of the causes, the organs involved and the outcome of injury to the abdomen in patients needing admission to hospital in an area of Southern Sweden, between 1950 and the end of 1979. The proportion of female patients and those aged over 60 increased significantly. The seasonal distribution of the injuries showed significant change, with a drop in the initially high frequency sustained during the summer months. Penetrating injuries were rare, but increased in the 1970s. Road traffic accidents as the cause of abdominal injuries rose to a maximum of 56 per cent in the late 1960s. The numbers of injured organs and the frequency of other associated injuries rose gradually until the mid-1970s, after which there was a slight decrease. The spleen, liver and large blood vessels were the organs which were increasingly often injured. The annual incidence of various visceral injuries per 100 000 population was calculated. The number of patients with a delay of at least 24 hours before operation fell significantly and there was a tendency to shorter hospital stay. The mortality curve showed a peak in the late 1960s.