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Virulence as a factor in salmonella infection in mice maintained in the cold.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298803
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-62-7. 15 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
June 1962
to infection manifested by the mice but this amount seems to be toxic for mice. Even more important is the incidence of staphylococci found in liver or kidney of mice infected with S. typhimurium and kept at 5° C. Cultures were ~ade on animals that survived infection for a pe riod of 14 days
  1 document  
Author
Miraglia, G.J.
Berry, L.J.
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Biology, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Alaska Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-62-7. 15 p.
Date
June 1962
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
1392394
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Mice
Salmonella
Staphylococcus
Infections
Exposure
Dosage Iron Compounds - Proferrin
Cold Temperature
Liver
Kidney
Abstract
The object of this study was to determine possible differences in the course of salmonellosis in mice maintained at 25° C and others kept at 5° C, and to uncover, if possible, mechanisms responsible for such differences. The LD50 dose for mice of Salmonella typhimurium, strain RIA, is 4.6 X 105 for animals individually housed without bedding and maintained at 25° C. It is 3.8 X 10³ for animals similarly housed but kept at 5° C. An intravenous injection of 0.1 ml of saccharated iron oxide (Proferrin) two hours prior to infection lowers the LD50 to 4.9 X 10³ and 4.0 X 10 for mice kept respectively at 25° C and at 50 C. Low environmental temperature and "blockage" of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) lower the resistance of mice to about the same degree, but low temperature and RES impairment together lower resistance as if each is acting independently. Doubling the volume of Proferrin more than doubles the change in susceptibility to infection manifested by the mice but this amount seems to be toxic for mice. Even more important is the incidence of staphylococci found in liver or kidney of mice infected with S. typhimurium and kept at 5° C. Cultures were made on animals that survived infection for a period of 14 days and, except for the largest challenge doses where only a few animals remained, the incidence of staphylococci was proportional to the number of salmonellae injected. At 25° C only a small percentage of mice have staphylococci in tissues and these occur independent of the infectious dose of salmonellae.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.62-7
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Low use of surveillance and early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Norway--a population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265049
Source
Cancer Epidemiol. 2014 Dec;38(6):741-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Arne Nørgaard Eskesen
Kristian Bjøro
Einar Martin Aandahl
Pål Dag Line
Espen Melum
Source
Cancer Epidemiol. 2014 Dec;38(6):741-7
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Early Detection of Cancer
Female
Humans
Liver Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Norway
Risk factors
Abstract
Curative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dependent on early diagnosis. Surveillance of patients at high risk for HCC is a key determinant to achieve this goal, but may be an underutilized tool. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of pre-diagnosis surveillance in patients with HCC in a large population-based cohort and to assess to what extent cirrhosis was known prior to the diagnosis of HCC.
All patients diagnosed with HCC during 2000-2009 in The South-Eastern Regional Health Authority, representing 56% of the Norwegian population, were identified from The National Cancer Registry and the medical records were reviewed.
Fifteen out of 486 patients (3%) were diagnosed by surveillance. Potential curative treatment was offered to 58% of the patients who underwent surveillance as opposed to 15% in the non-surveillance group. Only age = 65 years was an independent predictor of screening in a multivariate model. Almost two thirds of the patients with cirrhosis were unrecognized prior to the HCC diagnosis. Two hundred and fourteen patients (44%) were non-cirrhotics.
Regular HCC surveillance in at-risk populations is virtually not applied in Norway and this may contribute to inferior overall survival. Failure to recognize cirrhosis and a high rate of HCC in non-cirrhotic patients will be limiting factors for the overall effectiveness of a potential surveillance program.
PubMed ID
25454262 View in PubMed
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Liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265176
Source
Future Oncol. 2014 Nov;10(15 Suppl):83-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Andrew Kennedy
Source
Future Oncol. 2014 Nov;10(15 Suppl):83-7
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Brachytherapy - adverse effects - methods - standards
Humans
Liver Neoplasms - secondary - therapy
Neuroendocrine Tumors - pathology
PubMed ID
25478775 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and causes of elevated serum aminotransferase levels in a population-based cohort of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265255
Source
J Hepatol. 2014 Oct;61(4):785-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Philip R Spradling
Lisa Bulkow
Eyasu H Teshale
Susan Negus
Chriss Homan
Brenna Simons
Brian J McMahon
Source
J Hepatol. 2014 Oct;61(4):785-91
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alanine Transaminase - analysis - blood
Alaska - epidemiology
Alcohol Drinking - blood - epidemiology
Antiviral agents - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
DNA, Viral
Female
Hepatitis B virus - genetics
Hepatitis B, Chronic - blood - drug therapy - epidemiology - physiopathology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - blood - epidemiology
Patient Acuity
Prevalence
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
Information delineating the possible causes for elevated serum aminotransferase activity among persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is limited.
We analysed data collected from a population-based cohort of persons with chronic HBV infection followed from 2001 to 2010 to determine the frequency and causes of elevated aminotransferase activity. Any elevation concurrent with an HBV DNA level ?2000 IU/ml was attributed to immune active hepatitis B. Participant medical charts were reviewed by expert clinical staff to determine the presence of additional or alternative attributable causes. For each participant, a serum aminotransferase elevation could be attributed to more than one cause.
Among 1090 persons with chronic HBV infection, the mean follow-up was 7.7 years and the median age in 2001 was 39 (range 19-96) years; 634 (58.2%) had ?1 elevated aminotransferase level during follow-up and 438 (69.1%) of persons with ?1 elevation had at least one cause assigned for the elevation. The most common causes of aminotransferase elevations were immune active hepatitis B (48.4%), alcohol consumption (30.8%), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (24.7%). Among participants with HBV DNA levels persistently less than 2000 IU/ml, the most common causes were NAFLD or alcohol consumption.
In this population-based cohort of persons with chronic HBV infection, the prevalence of elevated aminotransferase activity was high and attributable to immune active chronic hepatitis B in approximately half of the cases; however, NAFLD or alcohol consumption were also common causes for enzyme elevations. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring HBV DNA levels, in addition to aminotransferase activity, among persons with chronic HBV infection so that appropriate interventions, including antiviral therapy, are utilised.
PubMed ID
24911461 View in PubMed
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[Viral hepatitis delta. Is there the delta infection problem in the Russian Federation?].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265277
Source
Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2014;(12):4-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
T V Kozhanova
L Iu Il'chenko
M I Mikhailov
Source
Eksp Klin Gastroenterol. 2014;(12):4-12
Date
2014
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Antiviral Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Clinical Trials as Topic
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Hepatitis D - epidemiology - therapy - virology
Hepatitis Delta Virus - drug effects - immunology
Humans
Liver Transplantation
RNA, Viral - blood
Russia - epidemiology
Virus Replication - drug effects
Abstract
Hepatitis delta (HD) is characterized by rapid progression to fibrosis, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and a high mortality rate. The article presents data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment of HD. The views of the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of HD-infection among population of the Russian Federation (RF) are limited due to absence of official HD registration and detection of antibodies to the HD virus (anti-HDV) in HBsAg-positive individuals. However, some areas of the country are characterized by a high HDV circulation (Republic Tyva (RT) - 46,5%, Republic Sakha (Yakutia) - 12,5%) according to our studies conducted in 6 regions of Russia. Clinical-epidemiological situation of HDV infection in RT can be considered as a model to create a program of optimize diagnosis, prevention and treatment of HDV-infection in the Russian Federation.
PubMed ID
26058105 View in PubMed
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Pharmacogenomics of metabolic effects of rosiglitazone.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87140
Source
Pharmacogenomics. 2008 Feb;9(2):141-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Seda Ondrej
Sedová Lucie
Oliyarnyk Olena
Kazdová Ludmila
Krenová Drahomíra
Corbeil Gilles
Hamet Pavel
Tremblay Johanne
Kren Vladimír
Author Affiliation
Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Centre de Recherche, Technôpole Angus, 2901 Rachel East, Office 314, Montréal, Québec H1W 4A4, Canada.
Source
Pharmacogenomics. 2008 Feb;9(2):141-55
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - drug effects - metabolism
Adipose Tissue, White - drug effects - metabolism
Animals
Cholesterol, Dietary - pharmacology
Diet
Dietary Carbohydrates - pharmacology
Fatty Acids - pharmacology
Gene Expression - drug effects
Glucose - metabolism
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glycogen - biosynthesis
Hypoglycemic Agents - pharmacology
Insulin Resistance
Lipids - biosynthesis
Liver - drug effects - metabolism
Metabolic Syndrome X - genetics - metabolism
Microarray Analysis
Oxidation-Reduction
Oxidative Stress - drug effects
RNA - biosynthesis - isolation & purification
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred Strains
Sucrose - pharmacology
Thiazolidinediones - pharmacology
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Thiazolidinediones are increasingly used drugs for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. The individual response to thiazolidinedione therapy, ranging from the variable degree of metabolic improvement to harmful side-effects, is empirical, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In order to assess the pharmacogenomic component of thiazolidinediones' metabolic action, we compared the effect of rosiglitazone in two genetically defined models of metabolic syndrome, polydactylous (PD) and BN.SHR4 inbred rat strains, with their insulin-sensitive, normolipidemic counterpart, the Brown Norway (BN) rat. MATERIALS & METHODS: 5-month-old male rats were fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks, and the experimental groups received rosiglitazone (0.4 mg/100 g body weight) during the last 2 weeks of high-fat diet feeding. We assessed metabolic and morphometric profiles, oxidative stress parameters and gene expression in white adipose tissue. RESULTS: In many followed parameters, we observed genetic background-specific effects of rosiglitazone administration. The mass and the sensitivity of visceral adipose tissue to insulin-stimulated lipogenesis increased with rosiglitazone treatment only in PD, correlating with a PD-specific significant increase in expression of prostaglandin D2 synthase. The glucose tolerance was enhanced in all strains, although fasting plasma glucose was increased by rosiglitazone in BN and BN.SHR4. Among the markers of lipid peroxidation, we observed the rosiglitazone-driven increase of plasma-conjugated dienes only in BN.SHR4. The genes with genotype-specific expression change included ADAM metallopeptidase domain 7, aquaporin 9, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, caveolin 1, catechol-O-methyl transferase, leptin and prostaglandin D2 synthase 2. CONCLUSION: Rosiglitazone's effects on lipid deposition and insulin sensitivity of peripheral tissues are largely dependent on the genetic background it acts upon.
PubMed ID
18370844 View in PubMed
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Alcoholic cirrhosis in Denmark - population-based incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rates between 1988 and 2005: a descriptive cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87157
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Jepsen Peter
Vilstrup Hendrik
Sørensen Henrik T
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. pj@dce.au.dk
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:3
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic - epidemiology - therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Sex Distribution
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Denmark has one of the highest alcohol consumption rates in Northern Europe. The overall per capita alcohol consumption has been stable in recent decades, but surveys have indicated that consumption has decreased in the young and increased in the old. However, there is no recent information on the epidemiology of alcoholic cirrhosis. We examined time trends in incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rates of alcoholic cirrhosis in Denmark between 1988 and 2005. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide population-based hospital registry to identify all Danish citizens with a hospital diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. We computed standardized incidence rates, prevalence and hospitalization rates of alcoholic cirrhosis within the Danish population. We also computed the number of hospitalizations per alcoholic cirrhosis patient per year. RESULTS: From 1988 to 1993, incidence rates for men and women of any age showed no clear trend, and after a 32 percent increase in 1994, rates were stable throughout 2005. In 2001-2005, the incidence rates were 265 and 118 per 1,000,000 per year for men and women, respectively, and the prevalence rates were 1,326 and 701 per 1,000,000. From 1994, incidence, prevalence, and hospitalization rates decreased for men and women younger than 45 years and increased in the older population, although the latter finding might be partly explained by changes in coding practice. Men and women born around 1960 or later had progressively lower age-specific alcoholic cirrhosis incidence rates than the generations before them. From 1996 to 2005, the number of hospitalizations per alcoholic cirrhosis patient per year increased from 1.3 to 1.5 for men and from 1.1 to 1.2 for women. CONCLUSION: From 1988 to 2005, alcoholic cirrhosis put an increasing burden on the Danish healthcare system. However, the decreasing incidence rate in the population younger than 45 years from 1994 indicated that men and women born around 1960 or later had progressively lower incidence rates than the generations before them. Therefore, we expect the overall incidence and prevalence rates of alcoholic cirrhosis to decrease in the future.
PubMed ID
18261240 View in PubMed
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Estimated risk of hepatotoxicity after an acute acetaminophen overdose in alcoholics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158173
Source
Alcohol. 2008 May;42(3):213-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Fahad M Ali
Edward W Boyer
Steven B Bird
Author Affiliation
Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. fahadalimd@hotmail.com
Source
Alcohol. 2008 May;42(3):213-8
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetaminophen - poisoning
Acetylcysteine - therapeutic use
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic - poisoning
Canada - epidemiology
Drug Overdose - epidemiology - pathology
Drug-Induced Liver Injury - epidemiology - pathology
Free Radical Scavengers - therapeutic use
Humans
Liver - pathology
Models, Statistical
Registries
Risk
Abstract
A published logistic regression model based on the Canadian Acetaminophen Overdose Study registry was used to calculate the risk of hepatotoxicity after an acute acetaminophen overdose and to estimate a treatment threshold line for alcoholic patients who did not co-ingest alcohol (i.e., abstinent alcoholics) on the Rumack-Matthew nomogram. The risk of hepatotoxicity in nonalcoholic and abstinent alcoholic patients was calculated at the acetaminophen concentration of 150 microg/ml at 4h (37.5 microg/ml at 12h) treatment threshold line. This corresponds to the "possible risk" line on the Rumack-Matthew nomogram and represents a 1.6% risk of hepatotoxicity for nonalcoholic patients at or below this line. At or below this same 150 microg/ml at 4-h line, abstinent alcoholic patients have a hepatotoxicity risk of 10.7%. The risk of hepatotoxicity in abstinent alcoholics' equivalent to that of nonalcoholics (i.e., 1.6%) occurs at a lower acetaminophen concentrations treatment threshold line, that is, 104 microg/ml at 4h (26 microg/ml at 12h). Because of difficulties plotting this new line on the familiar Rumack-Matthew semilogarithmic scale, a line connecting 100 microg/ml at 4h (25 microg/ml at 12h) is proposed. This line equates to a 1.1% risk of hepatotoxicity in abstinent alcoholic patients. The analysis supports the observation that based on the published model abstinent alcoholics might have a greater risk of hepatotoxicity after an acute acetaminophen overdose. This proposed new risk line can be used in hypothesis generation for future clinical studies in this alcohol related problem.
PubMed ID
18358677 View in PubMed
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Living donor hepatectomy: the importance of the residual liver volume.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132050
Source
Liver Transpl. 2011 Dec;17(12):1404-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Trevor W Reichman
Charbel Sandroussi
Solomon M Azouz
Lesley Adcock
Mark S Cattral
Ian D McGilvray
Paul D Greig
Anand Ghanekar
Markus Selzner
Gary Levy
David R Grant
Author Affiliation
Liver Transplant Unit, Multi-Organ Transplant Program, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Liver Transpl. 2011 Dec;17(12):1404-11
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Bilirubin - blood
Biological Markers - blood
Case-Control Studies
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Hepatectomy - adverse effects
Humans
International Normalized Ratio
Length of Stay
Liver - pathology - physiopathology - surgery
Liver Transplantation - adverse effects
Living Donors
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Organ Size
Postoperative Complications - blood - etiology - pathology - physiopathology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
Living liver donation is a successful treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Most adults are provided with a right lobe graft to ensure a generous recipient liver volume. Some centers are re-exploring the use of smaller left lobe grafts to potentially reduce the donor risk. However, the evidence showing that the donor risk is lower with left lobe donation is inconsistent, and most previous studies have been limited by potential learning curve effects, small sample sizes, or poorly matched comparison groups. To address these deficiencies, we conducted a case-control study. Forty-five consecutive patients who underwent left hepatectomy (LH; n = 4) or left lateral segmentectomy (LLS; n = 41) were compared with matched controls who underwent right hepatectomy (RH) or extended right hepatectomy (ERH). The overall complication rates of the 3 groups were similar (31%-37%). There were no grade 4 or 5 complications. There were more grade 3 complications for the RH patients (13.3%) and the ERH patients (15.6%) versus the LH/LLS patients (2.2%). The extent of the liver resection significantly correlated with the peak international normalized ratio (INR), the days to INR normalization, and the peak bilirubin level. A univariate analysis demonstrated that hepatectomy, the spared volume percentage, and the peak bilirubin level were strongly associated with grade 3 complications. A higher peak bilirubin level, which correlated with a lower residual liver volume, was associated with grade 3 complications in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.005). RH and grade 3 complications were associated with an increased length of stay (>7 days) in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, this analysis demonstrates a significant correlation between the residual liver volume and liver dysfunction, serious adverse postoperative events, and longer hospital stays. Donor safety should be the first priority of all living liver donor programs. We propose that the surgical procedure removing the smallest amount of the liver required to provide adequate recipient graft function should become the standard of care for living liver donation.
PubMed ID
21850688 View in PubMed
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Randomised clinical trial: rifaximin improves health-related quality of life in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy - a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132079
Source
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Oct;34(8):853-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
A. Sanyal
Z M Younossi
N M Bass
K D Mullen
F. Poordad
R S Brown
R P Vemuru
M. Mazen Jamal
S. Huang
K. Merchant
E. Bortey
W P Forbes
Author Affiliation
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA.
Source
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Oct;34(8):853-61
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Canada
Double-Blind Method
Female
Gastrointestinal Agents - therapeutic use
Hepatic Encephalopathy - drug therapy - physiopathology
Humans
Linear Models
Liver Cirrhosis - drug therapy - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Rifamycins - therapeutic use
Severity of Illness Index
Treatment Outcome
United States
Abstract
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a brain disorder that often results from cirrhosis due to viral hepatitis, metabolic and alcohol-related liver disease, and is characterised by cognitive, psychiatric and motor impairments. Recurrent bouts of overt HE negatively impact daily functioning and quality of life.
To evaluate the effect of rifaximin on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in cirrhotic patients with HE.
Patients with cirrhosis in remission from HE (Conn score = 0 or 1) and a documented history of recurrent HE episodes (=2 within 6 months of screening) were randomised to rifaximin 550 mg twice daily (N = 101) or placebo (N = 118) for 6 months. Concomitant lactulose was permitted during the study. The Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) was administered every 4 weeks, and time for occurrence of HE breakthrough was recorded. A longitudinal analysis using time-weighted averages of the CLDQ scores normalised by days on study therapy was used to evaluate the effect of treatment on HRQL, and between HE outcomes (HE recurrence, yes/no) irrespective of treatment.
The time-weighted averages of the overall CLDQ score and each domain score were significantly higher in the rifaximin group vs. placebo (P-values ranged from 0.0087 to 0.0436); and were significantly lower in patients who experienced HE breakthrough compared to those who remained in remission (P-values were
PubMed ID
21848797 View in PubMed
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2849 records – page 1 of 285.