The incidence of cancer was studied in a population-based cohort of 9,353 individuals (8,340 men and 1,013 women) with a discharge diagnosis of alcoholism in 1965-83, followed up for 19 years (mean 7.7). After exclusion of cancers in the first year of follow-up, 491 cancers were observed cf 343.2 expected through 1984 (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.4, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-1.6). A similar excess risk of cancer was seen among men (SIR = 1.4, CI = 1.3-1.6) and among women (SIR = 1.5, CI = 1.1-2.0). We observed the established associations with cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, CI = 2.9-5.7), esophagus (SIR = 6.8, CI = 4.5-9.9), larynx (SIR = 3.3, CI = 1.7-6.0), and lung (SIR = 2.1, CI = 1.7-2.6), although confounding by smoking likely increased these risk estimates. While there was evidence of increased risk for pancreatic cancer (SIR = 1.5, CI = 0.9-2.3), alcoholism did not elevate the incidence of cancer of the stomach (SIR = 0.9, CI = 6-1.4), large bowel (SIR = 1.1, CI = 0.8-1.5), prostate (SIR = 1.0, CI = 0.8-1.3), urinary bladder (SIR = 1.0, CI = 0.6-1.5), or of malignant melanoma (SIR = 0.9, CI = 0.3-1.9). Among women, the number of breast cancers observed was close to expected (SIR = 1.2, CI = 0.6-2.2), although a significant excess number of cervical cancers occurred (SIR = 4.2, CI = 1.5-9.1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The aim of this study was to determine the risk of developing primary liver cancer in patients with a diagnosis of alcoholism, liver cirrhosis, or both. Three population-based, mutually exclusive cohorts were defined on the basis of hospital discharge diagnosis between 1965 and 1983. Complete follow-up through 1984--excluding the first year of follow-up--showed that among 8,517 patients with a diagnosis of alcoholism, 13 cancers occurred, vs. 4.2 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6 to 5.3); among 3,589 patients with liver cirrhosis, 59 cancers occurred, vs. 1.7 expected (SIR = 35.1; 95% CI = 26.7 to 45.3), and among 836 patients with both diagnoses, 11 cancers occurred, vs. 0.3 expected (SIR = 34.3; 95% CI = 17.1 to 61.3). Thus, alcoholism alone entailed a moderately increased risk and alcoholism with liver cirrhosis did not increase the high relative risk for liver cancer more than cirrhosis alone. We conclude that alcohol intake may be a liver carcinogen only by being causally involved in the development of cirrhosis; and further, that the risk of developing liver cancer following cirrhosis in this population is similar to or higher than that after chronic hepatitis-B-virus infection in other Western countries.
We studied the alpha-radiation risks in patients who received injections of Thorotrast, an X-ray contrast medium used in Europe, Japan, and the United States from 1930 to 1955. Thorotrast was composed of thorium dioxide (ThO2) and Th-232, a naturally occurring radionuclide. Because the physical half-life of ThO2 is 14 billion years and Thorotrast is hardly eliminated from the body, tissues in which it was deposited are irradiated by alpha-radiation for the entire lifetime of the subject. The dosimetry of Thorotrast patients is very complicated, but currently its reliability is quite high compared with other irradiated populations. The major causes of the death of Thorotrast patients are liver cancer, liver cirrhosis, leukemia, and other cancers. Three histologies of liver cancer are found: cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and angiosarcoma. Although cholangiocarcinoma is the most frequent, angiosarcoma is characteristic of alpha-radiation. Among blood neoplasms with a higher incidence of increase than the general population, erythroleukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome were remarkable. Thorotrast patients exhaled a high concentration of radon (Rn-220), a progeny of Th-232, but no excesses of lung cancer in the patients of Japan, Germany, and Denmark were reported. Mutation analyses of p53 genes and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies at 17p locus were performed to characterize the genetic changes in Thorotrast-induced liver tumors. Interestingly, LOH, supposedly corresponding to large deletions was not frequent; most mutations were transitions, also seen in tumors of the general population, suggesting that genetic changes of Thorotrast-induced cancers are mainly delayed mutations, and not the result of the direct effects of radiation.
Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution.
We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.
We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985-2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10µm (PM10), less than 2.5µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10µm (PM2.5-10) and PM2.5 absorbance (soot) at baseline home addresses were estimated using land-use regression models from the ESCAPE project. We also investigated traffic density on the nearest road. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random-effects meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Out of 174,770 included participants, 279 liver cancer cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 17 years. In each cohort, HRs above one were observed for all exposures with exception of PM2.5 absorbance and traffic density. In the meta-analysis, all exposures were associated with elevated HRs, but none of the associations reached statistical significance. The summary HR associated with a 10-µg/m(3) increase in NO2 was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 1.30) and 1.34 (95% CI: 0.76, 2.35) for a 5-µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5.
The results provide suggestive evidence that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer. Confidence intervals for associations with NO2 and NOX were narrower than for the other exposures.
Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults.
A cohort of 285,884 boys and girls, born 1930 through 1980, who attended school in Copenhagen, were followed from 1977 to 31 December 2010. Their heights and weights were measured by school doctors or nurses at ages 7 through 13 years. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from an internal age- and sex-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression.
During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio (95% CI) of adult liver cancer was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.30 (1.16-1.46) per 1-unit BMI z-score at 7 years and 13 years of age, respectively. Similar associations were found in boys and girls, for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across years of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of viral hepatitis, alcohol-related disorders, and biliary cirrhosis.
Higher BMI in childhood increases the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. In view of the high case fatality of primary liver cancer, this result adds to the future negative health outcomes of the epidemic of childhood overweight, reinforcing the need for its prevention.
We examined cancer incidence in an expanded cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps.
We added male chimney sweep trade union members (1981-2006) to an earlier cohort (employed 1918-1980) and linked them to nationwide registers of cancer, causes of deaths, and total population. The total cohort (n = 6320) was followed from 1958 through 2006. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the male Swedish population as reference. We estimated exposure as years of employment and analyzed for exposure-response associations by Poisson regression.
A total of 813 primary cancers were observed versus 626 expected (SIR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.21, 1.39). As in a previous follow-up, SIRs were significantly increased for cancer of the esophagus, liver, lung, bladder, and all hematopoietic cancer. New findings included significantly elevated SIRs for cancer of the colon, pleura, adenocarcinoma of the lung, and at unspecified sites. Total cancer and bladder cancer demonstrated positive exposure-response associations.
Exposure to soot and asbestos are likely causes of the observed cancer excesses, with contributions from adverse lifestyle factors. Preventive actions to control work exposures and promote healthier lifestyles are an important priority.
A cohort of 5,546 ulcerative colitis patients was identified from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register for 1977-1989. Patients not included in the cohort comprised those with proctitis, those treated in outpatient clinics and those for whom follow-up was less than 1 year. The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Registry in order to assess the risks for colorectal and other cancers. The linkage revealed a significant increase in the number of colorectal cancers over that in the general population (RR = 1.8; n = 42; 95% CI = 1.3-2.4) with consistent relative risks during early and late follow-up. The relative risk was considerably higher among younger (20-39 years: RR = 22; n = 8; 95% CI = 9.7-44) than older patients (> or = 60 years: RR = 1.3; n = 25; 95% CI = 0.8-1.9), but the risk difference between patients and the general population was approximately constant across all ages. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the relative risk of hepatobiliary cancers (RR = 2.3; n = 9; 95% = 1.0-4.3) and a slight but significant increase in the relative risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (RR = 1.4; n = 37; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9). In summary, our population-based study confirms the increased risk of colorectal cancer among patients with ulcerative colitis and provides new leads suggesting that hepatobiliary cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer should be considered as possible sites for future patient monitoring.
Diabetics may have a higher risk of cancer, notably liver and pancreatic cancers. Evidence about other cancer types remains sparse. The authors examined potential associations between diabetes and several types of cancer in a large multicancer case-control project carried out in Montreal, Canada, in the 1980s. This report, based on 3,107 male cancer cases and 509 population controls, uses information on diabetes and several covariates collected by interview. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the associations between diabetes and each of 12 cancer types. Risks of pancreatic and liver cancers were increased among diabetics: adjusted ORs were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.3) for pancreatic and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 8.8) for liver cancer. The increased risk of pancreatic cancer was completely restricted to those with recent onset of diabetes; this was likely a manifestation of reverse causality. Conversely, the increased risk of liver cancer was independent of the interval between diabetes and cancer diagnoses. No associations were observed with melanoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, lung, prostate, bladder and kidney. In conclusion, diabetes was associated with an increased risk of liver cancer among men, but with no other cancer type including pancreatic cancer.
A descriptive analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) deaths in Canada for 1995 was undertaken. Cases (ICD-9 155.0) were identified from the Statistics Canada annual mortality file; age-adjusted death rates by age, sex and province were calculated. Antecedent causes and conditions leading to death listed on the death certificate, including viral hepatitis infection and cirrhosis, were examined, in addition to birthplace information. The 403 cases identified resulted in an annual age-standardized mortality rate of 2.11 deaths per 100,000 persons among men and 0.64 deaths per 100,000 persons among women. Mean age at death was 65.5 years with male-to-female ratio approximately 3:1. Compared to the age-standardized rate for birthplace of Canada of 0.96 per 100,000 (95 percent CI: 0.84, 1.10), the age-standardized mortality rates were significantly elevated for birthplace of Europe 1.72 (95 percent CI: 1.37, 2.28), Asia 5.17 (95 percent CI: 4.11, 6.44), and non-significantly elevated for all other countries 1.54 (95 percent CI: 0.94, 2.39). In total, 60 patients (15 percent) were reported to have had viral hepatitis; sufficient information was not provided for the remainder. Of the total population, 8.7 percent were reported to have had viral hepatitis B and 5.2 percent had viral hepatitis C. Information on cirrhosis was provided in 103 (26 percent) of cases. Of these, the largest proportion (45 percent) was of unknown type while 23 patients (22 percent) had alcohol-related cirrhosis. Prevalence of antecedent causes was slightly lower than reported previously and may be considered minimum estimates since inadequate information was provided in over 50 percent of deaths.