This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
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Ten cases of angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride workers from a plant in Shawinigan, Québec, are reported. The author insist mostly on the occupational history of these workers and on the morphologic description of the lesions. A pathogenic hypothesis is submitted.
In 108 patients with alcoholic liver disease who died during a 10-year follow-up, the diagnoses from the liver biopsies were compared with that from the Death Certificates. Data show that the currently used ICD-9 category of cirrhosis with or without mention of alcohol has a 47.2% chance of missing the diagnosis of cirrhosis. On the other hand when the mention of liver disease in the Death Certificate is used for the diagnosis of cirrhosis, the percentage of undiagnosed cirrhosis decreases to 19.4% (p less than 0.0001).
AIM: Aplastic anaemia following hepatitis may develop in as many as 1 of 3 patients with non-A, non-B and non-C hepatitis. Several causative factors have been discussed, such as viral infections and autoimmunity. Here we describe the natural history of this condition in 7 children and investigate possible hepatitis-causing agents. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records, bone marrow and liver biopsies of 7 children with severe hepatitis, with or without liver failure, who subsequently had developed aplastic anaemia. RESULTS: The median time from onset of hepatic symptoms until diagnosed onset of aplasia was 54 days. No associated viral infections could be identified. On liver biopsy, a majority had lobular inflammation but lacked signs of autoimmune hepatitis, findings compatible with a viral aetiology. Three of 6 children had low reticulocyte counts already at onset of hepatitis. All, but one patient is alive at median follow-up of 8 years. CONCLUSION: The unknown pathogenetic mechanism appears to target liver and bone marrow simultaneously, because half of the children concomitantly had low reticulocyte counts and severe liver failure.
Polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) is an antimicrobial biocide of the guanidine family. In the period from August 2006 to May 2007, more than 12500 patients were admitted to hospital with a history of drinking illegal cheap "vodka" in 44 different regions in Russia, of whom 9.4% died. In reality, the "vodka" was an antiseptic liquid composed of ethanol (˜93%), diethyl phthalate, and 0.1-0.14% PHMG (brand name "Extrasept-1").
We performed an analysis of the clinical features and outcome in four poisoning treatment centers in the cities of Perm, Ekaterinburg, Irkutsk, and Khabarovsk. A total of 579 patients (215 females and 364 males) with similar symptoms were included.
The main symptoms on admission included jaundice (99.7%), skin itch (78.4%), weakness (96%), anorexia (65.8%), dizziness (65.3%), nausea (54.8%), vomiting (22.6%), stomach ache (52.7%), diarrhea (32%), and fever (50%). Mild symptoms were found in 2.5% of cases, moderate in 63%, and severe in 34.5%. Laboratory results were (mean ± SD): total bilirubin 249 ± 158 µmol/L, direct bilirubin 166 ± 97 µmol/L, cholesterol 14 ± 8 mmol/L, alanine aminotransferase 207 ± 174 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase 174 ± 230 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 742 ± 751 IU/L, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1199 ± 1095 IU/L. Patients generally recovered over a period of 1-5 months, although high levels of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase were still found in all patients examined after 6 months. Sixty-one patients (10.5%) died between 23 and 150 days after poisoning. Local cholestasis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis developing into cirrhosis were found by liver biopsy.
Acute liver injury caused by PHMG-hydrochloride or PHMG in combination with either ethanol or diethyl phthalate can be characterized as cholestatic hepatitis with a severe inflammatory component causing high mortality.
In the period 1970-1984 alcoholic hepatitis was diagnosed by liver biopsy in 52 females. Thirty-six patients with cirrhosis were generally in a worse clinical and biochemical state than those without cirrhosis. Biochemical tests for liver function showed significant improvement from admission to the time of liver biopsy. At follow-up liver function tests were generally better in patients who had stopped drinking alcohol compared to those who continued to do so. The 5-year survival rate was 82% for females without cirrhosis, and 45% for those with cirrhosis (p less than 0.03). Considering the sex-related differences in alcohol abuse in the general population we found no evidence of increased susceptibility to the hepatotoxic effect of alcohol in females.
We have recently found that allogeneic intrabone marrow-bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) + donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) using CD4(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD4(-) cells) can prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) but suppress tumor growth (Meth A: fibrosarcoma) in mice. In the present study, we show that allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells also has suppressive effects on the growth of colon cancer cells implanted not only in the skin but also in the liver of rats. First, we examined the effects of allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI on the subcutaneously inoculated ACL-15 (rat colon cancer cell line). Lethally irradiated Fischer rats (F344 rats) were transplanted with T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells (BMCs) from Brown Norway (BN) rats. Simultaneously, DLI was performed using whole spleen cells (whole cells), CD4(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD4(-) cells) or CD8(+) cell-depleted spleen cells (CD8(-) cells) of BN rats. Although allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI suppressed tumor growth, a considerable number of rats treated with allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using whole cells or CD8(-) cells died due to GvHD. In contrast, allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells also suppressed tumor growth, but there was no GvHD. Based on these findings, we next examined the effects of allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells on the cancer cells implanted in the liver. Allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells via the portal vein significantly prolonged the survival. These results suggest that allogeneic IBM-BMT + DLI using CD4(-) cells could become a new strategy for the treatment of solid tumors.