This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
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The alpha spectrometry measurements of specific activity of 238Pu and 239Pu in urine from bioassay examinations of 1,013 workers employed at the radiochemical and plutonium production facilities of the Mayak Production Association and in autopsy specimens of lung, liver, and skeleton from 85 former nuclear workers who died between 1974-2009, are summarized.The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in the body and excreta has not changed with time in workers involved in production of weapons-grade plutonium production (e.g., the plutonium production facility and the former radiochemical facility). The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in individuals exposed to plutonium isotopes at the newer Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant ranged from 0.13% up to 27.5% based on the autopsy data. No statistically significant differences between 238Pu and 239Pu in distribution by the main organs of plutonium deposition were found in the Mayak workers. Based on the bioassay data,the fraction of 238Pu activity in urine is on average 38-69% of the total activity of 238Pu and 239Pu, which correlates with the isotopic composition in workplace air sampled at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. In view of the higher specific activity of 238Pu, the contribution of 238Pu to the total internal dose, particularly in the skeleton and liver, might be expected to continue to increase, and continued surveillance is recommended.
It has been hypothesized that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and adipokines and thereby exposes the liver to fat accumulation. The authors aimed to evaluate current epidemiologic evidence for an association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Clinical and epidemiologic studies with data on abdominal fat and liver fat content were reviewed. Studies using waist circumference to estimate abdominal fat mass suggested a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Studies using imaging methods suggested a direct association between intraabdominal fat and liver fat content, but not between subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat content. In conclusion, clinical and epidemiologic studies of abdominal fat and liver fat content suggest a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content which is probably accounted for by visceral fat. However, results from the included studies do not allow strong conclusions regarding the temporal sequence of events. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to obtain additional information on associations and mechanisms. Both abdominal fat depots and other body compartments of interest should be included to further investigate the association between specific fat depots and liver fat content. Biomarkers may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.
In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 microg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 microg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 microg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.
A circumpolar survey of heavy metals in willow ptarmigan liver and kidney revealed considerable variations in Cd content in Canada and Scandinavia. The Cd content in central Canada was comparable with that in Scandinavia and Russia, at least for kidney. However, in both liver and kidney the median for Canada as a whole was much higher than in the other countries. Some Canadian locations had exceptionally high levels, several birds having >50 mg kg(-1) in liver and >400 mg kg(-1) in kidney. In Norway, the Cd content was highest in central mountain areas in south Norway and inland locations in the two northernmost counties. Five locations in central and north Norway showed mean Cd levels in kidney above 100 mg kg(-1). It is difficult to evaluate regional differences in Sweden, but most locations had the same Cd level as moderately contaminated locations in Norway. Cd levels in Russia were comparable to moderately contaminated locations in the other countries. Due to a high intake of willow, naturally rich in Cd, direct comparison of the Cd level in willow ptarmigan from different locations cannot reveal the effects of long-range pollution. The Pb concentration in willow ptarmigan kidney and liver varied significantly in Norway and Canada, but not in Sweden and Russia. Levels in Sweden and Russia were comparable to those in Canada and low levels in Norway. The highest median value from all locations within countries was found in Norway, both in liver and kidney. The highest Pb content was found in south Norway, indicating an effect of long-range pollution in willow ptarmigan. The level in western Canada was significantly higher than in central Canada. The Hg content in liver varied significantly from one location to another in all the countries and in kidney everywhere except Sweden. In Scandinavia, there is no distinct regional pattern. Canada had a significantly higher Hg level in central than western regions in both tissues the opposite of that found for Cd and Pb. Cu and Zn showed significant variations from one location to another in liver and kidney in Canada and Norway, but only in kidney in samples from Sweden. Comparison between western and central Canada revealed a significant difference for Cu in liver, samples from central Canada having more. There are no significant differences from one country to another, but some localities in Canada seem to have higher Cu concentrations in kidney than are found in Scandinavia and Russia.
Alcohol abuse and alcoholism continue to be a major threat to human health. Given their increasing incidence and the detrimental impact on society, it is actually surprising that no objective, specific indicators for the early detection of alcohol-related health problems are available. A diagnostic test for a disease involving excessive alcohol consumption should be extremely specific in order to achieve positive predictive power, and: ideally it should also be very sensitive in order to identify problem drinkers in broad screening programs. The present research indicates that such a test for alcohol abuse may be provided by measurements of covalent chemical addition products (adducts) of acetaldehyde with biologically stable macromolecules. It was recently demonstrated that proteins modified with acetaldehyde are formed in vivo and can induce an antibody response as a result of alcohol consumption. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised by immunizations against acetaldehyde-modified proteins recognize acetaldehyde adducts irrespective of the nature of the carrier protein. Use of such antibodies in sensitive two-site immunoenzymatic or immunofluorometric assays has indicated that high acetaldehyde adduct concentrations exist in the erythrocytes of alcohol abusers, in healthy volunteers after a bout of drinking, and also in alcohol consuming mothers who subsequently give birth to children with foetal alcohol effects. We have developed the first immunohistochemical techniques for the detection of acetaldehyde adducts in human tissues. The centrilobular region of the liver of alcohol abusers with an early stage of histological tissue damage was found to contain acetaldehyde-modified epitopes, whereas the adducts were more widespread in advanced liver disease. The diagnostic superiority of acetaldehyde adducts as markers of ethanol consumption is due to the fact that they represent true metabolites of ethanol and allow estimations of past alcohol consumption after the ethanol has been eliminated from the body. Investigations into the formation of acetaldehyde adducts in alcohol consumers do not only have diagnostic applications but also help to explain the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced organ damage. Many types of hypersensitivity and immune responses are brought about by acetaldehyde-modified proteins. In addition, such metabolites of ethanol also aggravate liver disease through disturbed protein function and stimulation of fibrogenesis.
Based on the findings from the examination of 133 patients with stable angina pectoris, it was shown that He-Ne laser therapy with the irradiation being applied to the liver projection area in combination with the prolonged-action nitrates is superior to similar application of irradiation to the precordial region and Head's zones or intravenous irradiation of blood. Revealed in the examination of the above patients was a reaction of antiproteolytic enzymes to He-Ne laser therapy, which appeared to be varying with methods of laser therapy. It is suggested that a reaction of the realization of the components of proteolysis might be involved in the realization of therapeutic effect of the He-Ne laser energy in patients with ischemic heart disease.
The effects of acquired obesity on lipid profile and lipoprotein composition in rare BMI-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs were studied.
Abdominal fat distribution, liver fat (magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy), fasting serum lipid profile (ultracentrifugation, gradient gel-electrophoresis, and colorimetric enzymatic methods), and lifestyle factors (questionnaires and diaries) were assessed in 15 BMI-discordant (within-pair difference [?] in BMI >3 kg/m2) and nin concordant (?BMI