Skip header and navigation

Refine By

229 records – page 1 of 23.

1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273208
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Elizaveta Chabanova
Ehm Astrid Andersson
Johanne Dam Ohrt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Henrik S Thomsen
Jens-Christian Holm
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dyslipidemias - blood
Fatty Liver - pathology
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Liver - metabolism - pathology
Male
Muscles - pathology
Overweight
Pediatric Obesity - blood - pathology
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Puberty
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Abstract
This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Notes
Cites: Child Obes. 2012 Dec;8(6):533-4123181919
Cites: Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011 Aug;6(3-4):188-9621529264
Cites: Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Jan;38(1):40-523828099
Cites: Pediatr Diabetes. 2014 May;15(3):151-6124754463
Cites: Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21(1):3-1611296695
Cites: Pediatr Clin North Am. 2011 Dec;58(6):1375-92, x22093857
Cites: Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Feb;20(2):371-521869763
Cites: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012 Jul;199(1):2-722733887
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul;97(7):E1099-10522508709
Cites: Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Feb;19(2):146-5219171470
Cites: Pediatr Diabetes. 2014 Sep;15 Suppl 20:4-1725182305
Cites: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Feb;25(2):177-8411410817
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Dec;86(12):5755-6111739435
Cites: Diabetes. 2002 Apr;51(4):1022-711916921
Cites: Circulation. 2003 Mar 25;107(11):1562-612654618
Cites: Lancet. 2003 Sep 20;362(9388):951-714511928
Cites: Pediatrics. 2004 Aug;114(2 Suppl 4th Report):555-7615286277
Cites: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Oct;28(10):1257-6315278103
Cites: Nutr Rev. 1981 Feb;39(2):43-557010232
Cites: Stat Med. 1992 Jul;11(10):1305-191518992
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 Oct;58(4):463-78379501
Cites: Diabetes. 1997 Jun;46(6):983-89166669
Cites: Diabetologia. 1999 Jan;42(1):113-610027589
Cites: Diabetes. 1999 Oct;48(10):2039-4410512371
Cites: Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Mar;14(3):357-6716648604
Cites: Pediatrics. 2006 Oct;118(4):1388-9317015527
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2007 Jan;30(1):89-9417192339
Cites: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;61(7):877-8317151586
Cites: Circulation. 2008 Jul 15;118(3):277-8318591439
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2009 Feb;32(2):342-718957533
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep;94(9):3440-719531593
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun 1;171(11):1195-20220457571
Cites: Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Sep;163(3):413-920584996
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec;95(12):5189-9820829185
Cites: J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2010;2(3):100-621274322
Cites: Diabetologia. 2011 Apr;54(4):869-7521181394
Cites: Abdom Imaging. 2013 Apr;38(2):315-922736224
PubMed ID
26252778 View in PubMed
Less detail

238Pu: accumulation, tissue distribution, and excretion in Mayak workers after exposure to plutonium aerosols.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126152
Source
Health Phys. 2012 Mar;102(3):243-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Klara G Suslova
Alexandra B Sokolova
Viktor V Khokhryakov
Scott C Miller
Author Affiliation
Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorskoe Shosse 19, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia. suslova@subi.su
Source
Health Phys. 2012 Mar;102(3):243-50
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols
Bone and Bones - metabolism - radiation effects
Health Physics
Humans
Liver - metabolism - radiation effects
Lung - metabolism - radiation effects
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - administration & dosage - pharmacokinetics - toxicity - urine
Russia
Solubility
Tissue Distribution
Abstract
The alpha spectrometry measurements of specific activity of 238Pu and 239Pu in urine from bioassay examinations of 1,013 workers employed at the radiochemical and plutonium production facilities of the Mayak Production Association and in autopsy specimens of lung, liver, and skeleton from 85 former nuclear workers who died between 1974-2009, are summarized.The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in the body and excreta has not changed with time in workers involved in production of weapons-grade plutonium production (e.g., the plutonium production facility and the former radiochemical facility). The accumulation fraction of 238Pu in individuals exposed to plutonium isotopes at the newer Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant ranged from 0.13% up to 27.5% based on the autopsy data. No statistically significant differences between 238Pu and 239Pu in distribution by the main organs of plutonium deposition were found in the Mayak workers. Based on the bioassay data,the fraction of 238Pu activity in urine is on average 38-69% of the total activity of 238Pu and 239Pu, which correlates with the isotopic composition in workplace air sampled at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant. In view of the higher specific activity of 238Pu, the contribution of 238Pu to the total internal dose, particularly in the skeleton and liver, might be expected to continue to increase, and continued surveillance is recommended.
PubMed ID
22420016 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:77-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
M U Jakobsen
T. Berentzen
T I A Sørensen
K. Overvad
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Centre for Health And Society, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. muj@dce.au.dk
Source
Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:77-87
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - metabolism
Denmark
Fatty Liver - metabolism
Humans
Obesity - metabolism
Abstract
It has been hypothesized that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and adipokines and thereby exposes the liver to fat accumulation. The authors aimed to evaluate current epidemiologic evidence for an association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Clinical and epidemiologic studies with data on abdominal fat and liver fat content were reviewed. Studies using waist circumference to estimate abdominal fat mass suggested a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Studies using imaging methods suggested a direct association between intraabdominal fat and liver fat content, but not between subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat content. In conclusion, clinical and epidemiologic studies of abdominal fat and liver fat content suggest a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content which is probably accounted for by visceral fat. However, results from the included studies do not allow strong conclusions regarding the temporal sequence of events. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to obtain additional information on associations and mechanisms. Both abdominal fat depots and other body compartments of interest should be included to further investigate the association between specific fat depots and liver fat content. Biomarkers may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.
PubMed ID
17478441 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Absorptive and excretory functions of the liver in chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer in children]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42369
Source
Pediatr Akus Ginekol. 1976 Mar-Apr;(2):10-2
Publication Type
Article

Accumulation of cadmium in livers and kidneys in Greenlanders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80673
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Dec 15;372(1):58-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2006
Author
Johansen Poul
Mulvad Gert
Pedersen Henning Sloth
Hansen Jens C
Riget Frank
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. poj@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Dec 15;372(1):58-63
Date
Dec-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biological Availability
Cadmium - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - metabolism
Female
Food Contamination
Greenland
Humans
Kidney Cortex - metabolism
Liver - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Smoking
Abstract
In the Arctic, the traditional diet exposes its people to a very high intake of cadmium because it is highly concentrated in the liver and kidneys of commonly eaten marine mammals. In one study in Greenland, the cadmium intake was estimated to 182 microg/day/person in the fall and 346 in the spring. To determine whether the cadmium is accumulated in humans, we analyzed autopsy samples of liver and kidneys from 95 ethnic Greenlanders (aged 19-89) who died from a wide range of causes. The cadmium concentration in liver (overall mean 1.97 microg/g wet wt) appeared to be unrelated to any particular age group, whereas the concentrations in the kidneys peaked in Greenlanders between 40 and 50 years of age (peak concentration 22.3 microg/g wet wt). Despite the high cadmium levels in the typical Greenlander diet, we found that the cadmium concentrations in livers and kidneys were comparable to those reported from Denmark, Sweden, Australia and Great Britain. Furthermore, even though the mean cadmium intake from the diet was estimated to be 13-25 times higher in Greenlanders than in Danes, we found similar cadmium levels in the kidneys of both. Seal livers and kidneys are the main source of cadmium in the diet of Greenlanders, but these tissues are not eaten in Denmark. Thus, our results suggest that the accumulation of cadmium from Greenlander's marine diet is very low.
PubMed ID
16970977 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accumulation of heavy metals in circumpolar willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus) populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166941
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Dec 1;371(1-3):176-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2006
Author
H C Pedersen
F. Fossøy
J A Kålås
S. Lierhagen
Author Affiliation
Division of Terrestrial Ecology, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Tungasletta 2, NO-7485 Trondheim, Norway. hans.pedesen@nina.no
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Dec 1;371(1-3):176-89
Date
Dec-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Galliformes - metabolism
Humans
Kidney - metabolism
Liver - metabolism
Metals, Heavy - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Norway
Russia
Sweden
Abstract
A circumpolar survey of heavy metals in willow ptarmigan liver and kidney revealed considerable variations in Cd content in Canada and Scandinavia. The Cd content in central Canada was comparable with that in Scandinavia and Russia, at least for kidney. However, in both liver and kidney the median for Canada as a whole was much higher than in the other countries. Some Canadian locations had exceptionally high levels, several birds having >50 mg kg(-1) in liver and >400 mg kg(-1) in kidney. In Norway, the Cd content was highest in central mountain areas in south Norway and inland locations in the two northernmost counties. Five locations in central and north Norway showed mean Cd levels in kidney above 100 mg kg(-1). It is difficult to evaluate regional differences in Sweden, but most locations had the same Cd level as moderately contaminated locations in Norway. Cd levels in Russia were comparable to moderately contaminated locations in the other countries. Due to a high intake of willow, naturally rich in Cd, direct comparison of the Cd level in willow ptarmigan from different locations cannot reveal the effects of long-range pollution. The Pb concentration in willow ptarmigan kidney and liver varied significantly in Norway and Canada, but not in Sweden and Russia. Levels in Sweden and Russia were comparable to those in Canada and low levels in Norway. The highest median value from all locations within countries was found in Norway, both in liver and kidney. The highest Pb content was found in south Norway, indicating an effect of long-range pollution in willow ptarmigan. The level in western Canada was significantly higher than in central Canada. The Hg content in liver varied significantly from one location to another in all the countries and in kidney everywhere except Sweden. In Scandinavia, there is no distinct regional pattern. Canada had a significantly higher Hg level in central than western regions in both tissues the opposite of that found for Cd and Pb. Cu and Zn showed significant variations from one location to another in liver and kidney in Canada and Norway, but only in kidney in samples from Sweden. Comparison between western and central Canada revealed a significant difference for Cu in liver, samples from central Canada having more. There are no significant differences from one country to another, but some localities in Canada seem to have higher Cu concentrations in kidney than are found in Scandinavia and Russia.
PubMed ID
17055034 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acetaldehyde adducts of proteins: diagnostic and pathogenic implications in diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11788
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 1993;213:45-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
O. Niemelä
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl. 1993;213:45-54
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetaldehyde - blood - metabolism
Alcoholism - diagnosis - metabolism
Blood Proteins - metabolism
Erythrocytes - metabolism
Ethanol - metabolism
Fibrinogen - metabolism
Humans
Liver - metabolism
Proteins - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Alcohol abuse and alcoholism continue to be a major threat to human health. Given their increasing incidence and the detrimental impact on society, it is actually surprising that no objective, specific indicators for the early detection of alcohol-related health problems are available. A diagnostic test for a disease involving excessive alcohol consumption should be extremely specific in order to achieve positive predictive power, and: ideally it should also be very sensitive in order to identify problem drinkers in broad screening programs. The present research indicates that such a test for alcohol abuse may be provided by measurements of covalent chemical addition products (adducts) of acetaldehyde with biologically stable macromolecules. It was recently demonstrated that proteins modified with acetaldehyde are formed in vivo and can induce an antibody response as a result of alcohol consumption. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised by immunizations against acetaldehyde-modified proteins recognize acetaldehyde adducts irrespective of the nature of the carrier protein. Use of such antibodies in sensitive two-site immunoenzymatic or immunofluorometric assays has indicated that high acetaldehyde adduct concentrations exist in the erythrocytes of alcohol abusers, in healthy volunteers after a bout of drinking, and also in alcohol consuming mothers who subsequently give birth to children with foetal alcohol effects. We have developed the first immunohistochemical techniques for the detection of acetaldehyde adducts in human tissues. The centrilobular region of the liver of alcohol abusers with an early stage of histological tissue damage was found to contain acetaldehyde-modified epitopes, whereas the adducts were more widespread in advanced liver disease. The diagnostic superiority of acetaldehyde adducts as markers of ethanol consumption is due to the fact that they represent true metabolites of ethanol and allow estimations of past alcohol consumption after the ethanol has been eliminated from the body. Investigations into the formation of acetaldehyde adducts in alcohol consumers do not only have diagnostic applications but also help to explain the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced organ damage. Many types of hypersensitivity and immune responses are brought about by acetaldehyde-modified proteins. In addition, such metabolites of ethanol also aggravate liver disease through disturbed protein function and stimulation of fibrogenesis.
PubMed ID
8322018 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A comparative analysis of the results of using different methods of helium-neon laser therapy in patients with stable stenocardia]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11296
Source
Lik Sprava. 1996 Jan-Feb;(1-2):73-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
V M Iurlov
I H Kul'baba
Source
Lik Sprava. 1996 Jan-Feb;(1-2):73-6
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Angina Pectoris - drug therapy - metabolism - radiotherapy
Antithrombin III - metabolism - radiation effects
Chronic Disease
Combined Modality Therapy
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Evaluation Studies
Humans
Lasers - therapeutic use
Liver - metabolism - radiation effects
Nitroglycerin - therapeutic use
Vasodilator Agents - therapeutic use
alpha 1-Antitrypsin - metabolism - radiation effects
alpha-Macroglobulins - metabolism - radiation effects
Abstract
Based on the findings from the examination of 133 patients with stable angina pectoris, it was shown that He-Ne laser therapy with the irradiation being applied to the liver projection area in combination with the prolonged-action nitrates is superior to similar application of irradiation to the precordial region and Head's zones or intravenous irradiation of blood. Revealed in the examination of the above patients was a reaction of antiproteolytic enzymes to He-Ne laser therapy, which appeared to be varying with methods of laser therapy. It is suggested that a reaction of the realization of the components of proteolysis might be involved in the realization of therapeutic effect of the He-Ne laser energy in patients with ischemic heart disease.
PubMed ID
9005112 View in PubMed
Less detail

Acquired liver fat is a key determinant of serum lipid alterations in healthy monozygotic twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113714
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Sep;21(9):1815-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
S M Kaye
M. Maranghi
L H Bogl
J. Kaprio
A. Hakkarainen
J. Lundbom
N. Lundbom
A. Rissanen
M R Taskinen
K H Pietiläinen
Author Affiliation
Obesity Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Sep;21(9):1815-22
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat
Adult
Apolipoproteins B - blood
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Exercise
Fatty Liver - blood - complications - genetics - metabolism
Female
Finland
Humans
Liver - metabolism
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - blood - complications - genetics - metabolism
Subcutaneous Fat
Twins, Monozygotic
Young Adult
Abstract
The effects of acquired obesity on lipid profile and lipoprotein composition in rare BMI-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs were studied.
Abdominal fat distribution, liver fat (magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy), fasting serum lipid profile (ultracentrifugation, gradient gel-electrophoresis, and colorimetric enzymatic methods), and lifestyle factors (questionnaires and diaries) were assessed in 15 BMI-discordant (within-pair difference [?] in BMI >3 kg/m2) and nin concordant (?BMI
PubMed ID
23696329 View in PubMed
Less detail

229 records – page 1 of 23.