The dynamics of the acid and neutral proteinases general enzymes activity change in the hepatocytes postnuclear fraction in the rats suffering from the Heren's carcinoma was investigated. It was determined that in the tumor development of the enzyme activity level of both the acid and neutral proteinases increased 2,6-fold. The natural preparation of the herbs (Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea L., Scorzonera humilis L., Aconitum moldavicum Hacq.) normalizes both the activity of the investigated enzymes and coefficients of the liver weights of the sick animals. The chemical medicinal preparation 5,6-benzcumarine-5-uracil normalizes the activity of the neutral cytoplasmatic proteinases and reduces the level of the proteolytic activity of the acid enzymes in comparison with the control group of the animals as well as increases of the liver weight coefficients.
The present case report describes a consultation with the Clinical Pharmacology Consultation Service at the Sunnybrook & Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, for drug-induced hepatitis in a patient with multiple drug exposures. The original question to be addressed was whether dalteparin was responsible for an acute rise in liver transaminases. The approach involved establishing a best possible diagnosis of the adverse event, obtaining a comprehensive history of drug exposure and evaluating the possible contributory role of alternate etiologies supported by a literature search. On balance, based on temporal relationships and previous case reports, ranitidine was considered to be the most likely causal agent. The initial consultation request was to investigate the likelihood that daltaperin caused hepatitis; however, a systematic and comprehensive approach led to the conclusion that it was more likely to be ranitidine-induced hepatitis.
Groups of patients suffering alcoholism and narcomania were examined for the effect of intoxication on the blood serum enzymes of mainly liver origin: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as on thymol test. It has been shown that in patients with the first stage of alcoholism one could observe only functional disturbances in the liver: the increase of ADH activity which evidences for the induction of its synthesis. In patients with the first stage of opium narcomania one can record total hyperenzymenia, decrease of de-Rimis coefficient at the expense of more considerable increase of ALT activity than that of AST, as well as the sharp increase of thymol test--these are the signs of destructive and metabolic disturbances in the liver. In patients with the second stage of alcoholism one can observe the decrease of ALDH activity under the increase of ADH, AST, ALT activity and high thymol test-these are the signs of toxical hepatitis. Destructive and metabolic changes increase in the liver in the patients with the second stage of narcomania.
Patients with infectious viral or toxic cirrhosis of the liver participated in complex clinical pathomorphological and molecular-genetic study aimed at the search for markers of predisposition to accelerated liver fibrosis, in which the xenobiotic biotransformation system is involved. The results demonstrate association between CYP2D6 (1846G/A) genotype and rapid cirrhosis development and indicate the necessity of studying the mechanisms underlying this association.
Reaction to fasting of 2 mice strains differing in their sensitivity to spontaneous and induced hepatocarcinogenesis, has been investigated. It was shown that mice of both strains displayed similar stress reaction after 3-day fasting manifested in increase in blood corticosterone level; and decrease in testosterone level. At the same time, both strains demonstrated opposite changes at tissue- and enzyme levels in the liver. It was shown that DD/He mice, highly sensitive to induction of liver tumors, were characterized by significant increase in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity and reduction of lipid droplets in hepatocytes. CC57BR/Mv mice, demonstrating high frequency of spontaneous hepatomas and insensitive to induction of such tumors, were characterized by a decrease in the TAT activity and fatty infiltration of the liver.
An increase of alcohol dehydrogenase activity is observed in patients with chronic alcoholism at the first stage of the disease under normal indices of activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase and thymol sample that evidences for the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase synthesis in the liver. At the second stage of alcoholism the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase, the index of thymol sample increase while activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreases that indicates to organic destructive changes in the liver. At the third stage of alcoholism one can observe the decrease in activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase relative to activity of these enzymes at the second stage, that can evidence for the increase of the possibility of the processes of synthesis of the liver. The correlation of alcohol dehydrogenase activity to that of aldehyde dehydrogenase in the process of formation and development of alcoholism is shifted towards the progressive accumulation of acetaldehyde. Parallel increase of dopamine concentration in blood creates conditions for formation of morphine-like alcaloides--products of condensation of acetaldehide with dopamine.
To investigate whether hyperechogenicity of liver can reliably be interpreted as liver steatosis and if any concomitant or isolated fibrosis can be disclosed.
A series of 165 patients with no signs or symptoms of liver disease referred because of slightly to moderately raised aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase and/or aspartate aminotransferase 0.7-5.0 microkat/l) for more than 6 months were prospectively investigated with a comprehensive laboratory profile, ultrasound examination of liver and percutaneous liver biopsy Fibrosis was assessed quantitatively and according to Metavir. Steatosis was graded as none, mild, moderate or severe.
Of 98 (59.4%) patients with raised echogenicity, 85 (86.7%) had liver steatosis of at least moderate degree, 9 patients with same degree of steatosis had normal echogenicity and 13 patients with no or only mild steatosis had a hyperechogenic liver (sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.82, positive predictive value 0.87, negative predictive value 0.87). About the same relations were found regardless of body mass index and degree of fibrosis. With increased echogenicity together with high attenuation (n = 591 and reduced portal vessel wall distinction (n = 79), positive predictive value increased to 0.93 and 0.94, respectively. Quantitatively assessed fibrosis (mean +/- SD) was 3.2 +/- 4.6% of biopsy area with normal and 2.3 +/- 1.8% with raised echogenicity (ns). Echogenicity was normal in 5 out of 9 patients with septal fibrosis and in 4 out of 6 patients with cirrhosis. Any structural, non-homogenous findings at ultrasound were not associated with architectural fibrotic changes and none had nodular contours of liver surface.
Assessment of liver echogenicity is of value for detection or exclusion of moderate to pronounced fatty infiltration (correct classification 86.6%) but cannot be relied upon in diagnosing fibrosis, not even cirrhosis in asymptomatic patients with mild to moderately elevated liver transaminases.
The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution.