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Accumulation of organotin compounds and mercury in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Danish waters and West Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70531
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Martin M Larsen
Christina Lockyer
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Female
Greenland
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Organotin Compounds - analysis - metabolism
Phocoena - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Zinc - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
The concentrations of butyltin (summation operatorBT=TBT+DBT+MBT) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the liver of 35 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), which were found dead along the coastlines or caught as by-catch in the Danish North Sea and the Inner Danish waters. In addition, three harbour porpoises hunted in West Greenland were analysed. High levels of butyltin and mercury, within the range of 68-4605 mg BT/kg ww and 0.22-92 mg Hg/kg ww, were found in the liver of the Danish harbour porpoises and both substances tend to accumulate with age. The levels in the harbour porpoise from West Greenland were 2.0-18 mg BT/kg ww and 6.3-6.9 mg Hg/kg ww, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin and mercury were both found to be higher in stranded than in by-caught harbour porpoises but only the butyltin concentration was significantly higher in stranded porpoises in the age group 1-5 years. These substances are suspected of inducing adverse effects on immune and endocrine systems in mammals and they may thereby pose a threat to the animals. This study suggests that organotin compounds are also important, when assessing the risks of contaminants on the health and viability of harbour porpoises in Danish waters.
PubMed ID
16227073 View in PubMed
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Aldehyde-protein adducts in the liver as a result of ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10666
Source
Front Biosci. 1999 Jun 1;4:D506-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1-1999
Author
O. Niemelä
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, FIN-90220 Oulu, and EP Central Hospital Laboratory, Seinäjoki, Finland. onni.niemela@epshp.fi
Source
Front Biosci. 1999 Jun 1;4:D506-13
Date
Jun-1-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aldehydes - immunology - metabolism
Animals
Biological Markers - analysis - blood
Disease Models, Animal
Ethanol - metabolism
Extracellular Matrix Proteins - metabolism
Humans
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Liver Diseases - immunology - metabolism
Oxidative Stress
Protein Binding
Proteins - immunology - metabolism
Rats
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Swine
Abstract
A number of systems that generate oxygen free radicals and reactive aldehydic species are activated by excessive ethanol consumption. Recent studies from human alcoholics and from experimental animals have indicated that acetaldehyde and aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation, which are generated in such processes, can bind to proteins forming stable adducts. Adduct formation may lead to several adverse consequences, such as interference with protein function, stimulation of fibrogenesis, and induction of immune responses. The presence of protein adducts in the centrilobular region of the liver in alcohol abusers with an early phase of histological liver damage indicates that adduct formation is one of the key events in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Dietary supplementation with fat and/or iron strikingly increases the amount of aldehyde-derived epitopes in the liver together with promotion of fibrogenesis.
PubMed ID
10352137 View in PubMed
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Assessment of mercury and selenium tissular concentrations and total mercury body burden in 6 Steller sea lion pups from the Aleutian Islands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264321
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 May 15;82(1-2):175-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2014
Author
Lucero Correa
Lorrie D Rea
Rebecca Bentzen
Todd M O'Hara
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 May 15;82(1-2):175-82
Date
May-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Body Burden
Bone and Bones - chemistry - metabolism
Female
Hair - chemistry - metabolism
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Muscles - chemistry - metabolism
Sea Lions - metabolism
Selenium - analysis - metabolism
Tissue Distribution
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) were measured in several tissue compartments in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups; in addition we determined specific compartment and body burdens of THg. Compartmental and body burdens were calculated by multiplying specific compartment fresh weight by the [THg] (summing compartment burdens equals body burden). In all 6 pup tissue sets (1) highest [THg] was in hair, (2) lowest [THg] was in bone, and (3) pelt, muscle and liver burdens contributed the top three highest percentages of THg body burden. In 5 of 6 pups the Se:Hg molar ratios among compartments ranged from 0.9 to 43.0. The pup with the highest hair [THg] had Se:Hg molar ratios in 9 of 14 compartments that were ? 0.7 potentially indicating an inadequate [TSe] relative to [THg].
Notes
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PubMed ID
24661459 View in PubMed
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Biomarker responses and decreasing contaminant levels in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard, Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature85995
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(15):1009-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Wolkers Hans
Krafft Bjørn A
van Bavel Bert
Helgason Lisa B
Lydersen Christian
Kovacs Kit M
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway. Hans.Wolkers@npolar.no
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(15):1009-18
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry - metabolism
Animals
Biological Markers - analysis - metabolism
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - analysis - metabolism
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Microsomes, Liver - chemistry - enzymology
Norway
Phoca - metabolism
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
Blubber was analyzed for a wide range of contaminants from five sub-adult and eight adult male ringed seals sampled in 2004, namely, for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), toxaphenes, chlordanes, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Contaminant levels were compared to previously sampled animals from the same area, as well as data from literature for other arctic wildlife species from a wide variety of locations. Ringed seals sampled in 2004 showed 50-90% lower levels of legacy contaminants such as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides compared to animals sampled in 1996 of similar age (14 sub-adults and 7 adult males), indicating that the decline of chlorinated contaminants observed during the 1990s in a variety of arctic wildlife species is continuing into the 21st century. The results also indicated that PBDE declined in ringed seals; levels in 2004 were about 70-80% lower than in animals sampled in 1998. This is one of the first observations of reduced exposure to these compounds and might be a first indication that restrictions of production and use of these contaminants have resulted in lower exposures in the Arctic. The PCB pattern shifted toward the less chlorinated (i.e., less persistent) PCBs, especially in adult ringed seals, possibly as a result of reduced overall contaminant exposures and a consequently lower cytochrome P-450 (CYP) induction, which results in a slower metabolism of less persistent PCBs. The overall effect would be relative increases in the lower chlorinated PCBs and a relative decreases in the higher chlorinated PCB. Possibly due to low exposure and consequent low induction levels, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activity proved to be a poor biomarker for contaminant exposure in ringed seals in the present study. The close negative correlation (r(2) = 70.9%)between EROD activity and percent blubber indicates that CYP might respond to increased bioavailability of the contaminant mixtures when they are mobilized from blubber during periods of reduced food intake.
PubMed ID
18569610 View in PubMed
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Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61466
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:523-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2005
Author
Mary Gamberg
Gail Boila
Gary Stern
Patrick Roach
Author Affiliation
Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada Y1A 7A1. mary.gamaberg@nrothwestel.net
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:523-9
Date
Dec-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Brain - metabolism
Cadmium - analysis - metabolism
Diet
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - metabolism
Female
Fishes
Kidney - chemistry - metabolism
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Methylmercury Compounds - analysis - metabolism
Mink
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Selenium - analysis - metabolism
Yukon Territory
Abstract
Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 microg g-1 in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 microg g-1 in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 microg g-1 in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 microg g-1. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.
PubMed ID
16076479 View in PubMed
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Circumpolar pattern of mercury and cadmium in ringed seals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6630
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:312-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2005
Author
Frank Riget
Derek Muir
Michael Kwan
Tatiana Savinova
Madeleine Nyman
Victoria Woshner
Todd O'Hara
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Denmark. ffr@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:312-22
Date
Dec-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Cadmium - analysis - metabolism
Comparative Study
Environmental monitoring
Kidney - chemistry - metabolism
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
North America
Oceans and Seas
Phoca
Russia
Svalbard
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in ringed seal liver and kidney were compared from 11 locations across the Arctic, from Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard to the White Sea. Adult and sub adult seals were evaluated separately to account for age accumulations of Hg and Cd. Only recently (1995-2001) collected samples were included to minimize influence of changes over time. The Hg and Cd concentrations in ringed seal liver and kidney differed significantly among the studied locations. The Hg concentrations in liver of ringed seals was highest in the western Canadian Arctic locations, while Cd in liver was highest in the eastern Canadian and West Greenland locations. In general, Hg and Cd concentrations in liver and kidney were significantly higher in adult ringed seals than in sub adults and the circumpolar patterns were most pronounced in adult ringed seals. The Hg and Cd concentrations in kidney of ringed seals in general supported the geographical pattern found in livers although the coverage was more limited. The most likely explanation for the observed circumpolar pattern appears mainly to be related to natural geological differences in mineral (Hg and Cd) among regions.
PubMed ID
16005942 View in PubMed
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Concentrations of mercury in tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from several communities in the Canadian Arctic from 1981 to 2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6626
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:391-412
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2005
Author
W L Lockhart
G A Stern
R. Wagemann
R V Hunt
D A Metner
J. DeLaronde
B. Dunn
R E A Stewart
C K Hyatt
L. Harwood
K. Mount
Author Affiliation
Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:391-412
Date
Dec-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Beluga Whale - metabolism
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Kidney - chemistry - metabolism
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Muscles - chemistry - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Selenium - analysis
Skin - chemistry - metabolism
Tissue Distribution
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
Beluga whales have been hunted for food by Native People in the Canadian Arctic since prehistoric time. Here we report the results of analyses of total mercury in samples of liver, kidney, muscle and muktuk from collections over the period 1981-2002. We compare these results with human consumption guidelines and examine temporal and geographic variation. Liver has been analyzed more frequently than other organs and it has been used as the indicator organ. Mercury accumulates in the liver of the whales over time so that the whale ages are usually linked statistically to their levels of mercury in liver. Virtually all the samples of 566 animals analyzed contained mercury in liver at concentrations higher than the Canadian consumption guideline of 0.5 microg g-1 (wet weight) for fish. (There is no regulatory guideline for concentrations in marine mammals in Canada.) Samples from locations in the Mackenzie Delta in the western Canadian Arctic and from Pangnirtung in the eastern Canadian Arctic were obtained more often than from other location and these offered the best chances to determine whether levels have changed over time. Statistical outlier points were removed and the regressions of (ln) mercury in liver on age were used to calculate the level of mercury in whales of age 13.1 years in order to compare age-adjusted levels at different locations. These age-adjusted levels and also the slopes of regressions suggested that levels have increased in the Mackenzie Delta over the sampling period although not in a simple linear fashion. Other locations had fewer collections, generally spread over fewer years. Some of them indicated differences between sampling times but we could not establish whether these differences were simply temporal variation or whether they were segments of a consistent trend. For example, the levels in whales from Arviat were considerably higher in 1999 than in 1984 but we have only two samples. Similarly, samples from Iqaluit in 1994 exceeded considerably those in 1993 and the interval seems too short to reflect any regional temporal trend and more likely represent an extreme case of year-to-year variation. Previous analyses of data from geographically distinct groups had suggested that whales in the western Canadian Arctic had higher levels of mercury than those from the eastern Canadian Arctic. The present analysis suggests that such regional differences have diminished and are no longer statistically significant. No site has indicated significant decreases in more recent samples. The levels of total mercury in the most analyzed organs fell in the order of liver (highest levels), kidney, muscle and muktuk (lowest level). While muktuk had the lowest level of the organs most frequently analyzed, it is the preferred food item from these whales and it still exceeded the consumption guideline in most instances.
PubMed ID
16055166 View in PubMed
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Diphenidine, a new psychoactive substance: metabolic fate elucidated with rat urine and human liver preparations and detectability in urine using GC-MS, LC-MS(n) , and LC-HR-MS(n).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281405
Source
Drug Test Anal. 2016 Oct;8(10):1005-1014
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Carina S D Wink
Julian A Michely
Andrea Jacobsen-Bauer
Josef Zapp
Hans H Maurer
Source
Drug Test Anal. 2016 Oct;8(10):1005-1014
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 - analysis - chemistry - metabolism
Designer Drugs - analysis - chemistry
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry - methods
Humans
Japan
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Methylation
Microsomes, Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Piperidines - analysis - chemistry
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Sweden
Urinalysis - methods
Abstract
Diphenidine is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) sold as a 'legal high' since 2013. Case reports from Sweden and Japan demonstrate its current use and the necessity of applying analytical procedures in clinical and forensic toxicology. Therefore, the phase I and II metabolites of diphenidine should be identified and based on these results, the detectability using standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) be elucidated. Urine samples were collected after administration of diphenidine to rats and analyzed using different sample workup procedures with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-(high resolution)-mass spectrometry (LC-(HR)-MS). With the same approaches incubates of diphenidine with pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) and cytosol (pHLC) were analyzed. According to the identified metabolites, the following biotransformation steps were proposed in rats: mono- and bis-hydroxylation at different positions, partly followed by dehydrogenation, N,N-bis-dealkylation, and combinations of them followed by glucuronidation and/or methylation of one of the bis-hydroxy-aryl groups. Mono- and bis-hydroxylation followed by dehydrogenation could also be detected in pHLM or pHLC. Cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isozymes CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 were all capable of forming the three initial metabolites, namely hydroxy-aryl, hydroxy-piperidine, and bis-hydroxy-piperidine. In incubations with CYP2D6 hydroxy-aryl and hydroxy-piperidine metabolites were detected. After application of a common users' dose, diphenidine metabolites could be detected in rat urine by the authors' GC-MS as well as LC-MS(n) SUSA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PubMed ID
26811026 View in PubMed
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Excess zinc associated with severe progressive cholestasis in Cree and Ojibwa-Cree children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212344
Source
Lancet. 1996 Mar 30;347(9005):866-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-30-1996
Author
M J Phillips
C A Ackerley
R A Superina
E A Roberts
R M Filler
G A Levy
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Lancet. 1996 Mar 30;347(9005):866-8
Date
Mar-30-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholestasis, Intrahepatic - chemically induced - ethnology - pathology
Copper - adverse effects - metabolism
Female
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Liver - chemistry - metabolism - pathology
Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary - metabolism - pathology
Male
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission
Ontario - epidemiology
Zinc - adverse effects - metabolism
Abstract
High hepatic copper concentrations have been reported in several liver disorders. We report six Native Canadian children with severe chronic cholestatic liver disease, who had excess hepatic copper and zinc.
The children, aged 22 months to 8 years, came from northern Ontario, Canada. All were referred for possible liver transplantation because of end-stage liver disease. We examined explanted liver samples (or liver biopsy material in one case) by scanning transmission electronmicroscopic (STEM) X-ray elemental microanalysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Samples from four controls (two with no liver pathology, one with biliary atresia, and one with Wilson's disease) were also analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
The explanted livers showed similar distinctive signs of advanced biliary cirrhosis, and on electronmicroscopy there were dense deposits in enlarged lysosomes and in cytoplasm. Hepatic copper concentrations were many times higher in the five patients with measurements (47.6-56.9 microgram/g dry weight) than in two samples of normal control liver tissue (2.3 and 2.9 microgram/g). Similarly, hepatic zinc concentrations were many times higher in the patients than in controls (104-128 vs 1.9-3.2 microgram/g dry weight).
The excess copper may be due to chronic cholestasis but the excess zinc is unexplained. Since three of the patients are related (shared grandparents), a genetic disorder of metal metabolism is possible, but we cannot exclude environmental factors.
Notes
Comment In: Lancet. 1996 Mar 30;347(9005):845-68622385
Comment In: Lancet. 1996 May 11;347(9011):13318622523
Erratum In: Lancet 1996 Jun 22;347(9017):1776
PubMed ID
8622393 View in PubMed
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Generation of protein adducts with malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde in muscles with predominantly type I or type II fibers in rats exposed to ethanol and the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor cyanamide.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9921
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;76(3):668-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
Onni Niemelä
Seppo Parkkila
Michael Koll
Victor R Preedy
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. inni.niemela@epshp.fi
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep;76(3):668-74
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetaldehyde - blood - metabolism - pharmacology
Aldehyde Oxidoreductases - antagonists & inhibitors
Animals
Cyanamide - pharmacology
Drug Synergism
Enzyme Inhibitors - pharmacology
Ethanol - blood - pharmacology
Immunohistochemistry
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Malondialdehyde - metabolism
Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch - drug effects - metabolism
Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch - drug effects - metabolism
Muscle Proteins - analysis - metabolism
Muscle, Skeletal - drug effects - metabolism
Rats
Rats, Wistar
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic myopathy is known to primarily affect type II muscle fibers (glycolytic, fast-twitch, anaerobic), whereas type I fibers (oxidative, slow-twitch, aerobic) are relatively protected. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether aldehyde-derived adducts of proteins with malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde are formed in muscle of rats as a result of acute exposure to ethanol and acetaldehyde. The differences between type I muscle, type II muscle, and liver tissue were also assessed. DESIGN: The formation and distribution of malondialdehyde- and acetaldehyde-protein adducts were studied with immunohistochemistry in soleus (type I) muscle, plantaris (type II) muscle, and liver in 4 groups of rats. The different groups were administered saline (control), cyanamide (an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor), ethanol, and cyanamide + ethanol. RESULTS: Treatment of rats with ethanol and cyanamide + ethanol increased the amount of aldehyde-derived protein adducts in both soleus and plantaris muscle. The greatest responses in malondialdehyde-protein and acetaldehyde-protein adducts were observed in plantaris muscle, in which the effect of alcohol was further potentiated by cyanamide pretreatment. Malondialdehyde- and acetaldehyde-protein adducts were also found in liver specimens from rats treated with ethanol and ethanol + cyanamide; the most abundant amounts were found in rats given cyanamide pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Acute ethanol administration increases protein adducts with malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde, primarily in type II muscle. This may be associated with the increased susceptibility of anaerobic muscle to alcohol toxicity. Higher acetaldehyde concentrations exacerbate adduct formation, especially in type II-predominant muscles. The present findings are relevant to studies on the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced myopathy.
PubMed ID
12198016 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.