In February 1999, an outbreak of listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 3a occurred in Finland. All isolates were identical. The outbreak strain was first isolated in 1997 in dairy butter. This dairy began delivery to a tertiary care hospital (TCH) in June 1998. From June 1998 to April 1999, 25 case patients were identified (20 with sepsis, 4 with meningitis, and 1 with abscess; 6 patients died). Patients with the outbreak strain were more likely to have been admitted to the TCH than were patients with other strains of L. monocytogenes (60% vs. 8%; odds ratio, 17.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-136.8). Case patients admitted to the TCH had been hospitalized longer before cultures tested positive than had matched controls (median, 31 vs. 10 days; P=.008). An investigation found the outbreak strain in packaged butter served at the TCH and at the source dairy. Recall of the product ended the outbreak.
Serious infection with the bacterium L. monocytogenes mainly manifests as sepsis and/or meningitis. A particular entity is Listeria brain stem encephalitis, which is characterized by progressive brain stem deficits. The condition is fatal unless early treated. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence of brain stem encephalitis in a population-based listeriosis material. Medical records from 212 of the 240 patients with serious listeriosis reported in Norway from 1977 to 2000, as well as autopsy material from 8 of these patients, were available. This material was searched for clinical and neuropathological evidence of brain stem infection. Findings indicating brain stem encephalitis were present in 19 of the 172 patients with adult listeriosis (11%) but none of the 40 pregnancy-related listeriosis cases. None of the 19 patients had been diagnosed with Listeria brain stem infection originally. We conclude that brain stem encephalitis is relatively common in this Norwegian listeriosis material.
In 1958-74 altogether 64 cases of bacteriologically verified infections of Listeria monocytogenes were diagnosed in Sweden in children, aged more than 27 days, and in adults. Immunosuppression predisposed to the disease. Thus, many patients had co-existing disorders, such as leukemia and alcoholism. Sixteen patients had been treated with corticosteroids, which were combined with cytostatic drugs in nine. Meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in 52 patients and was fatal in 16. The clinical symptoms did not differ from those in purulent meningitis caused by other bacteria. In the cerebrospinal fluid the cellular response was dominated by polymorphonuclear cells in 29 patients and by mononuclear cells in 20. Ten patients had septicemia, which was fatal in four. Clinical symptoms were dominated by chills, high fever and general prostration. One patient had pleurisy and one an abscess of the neck; both recovered. Serotypes 1 and 4b prevailed and were equally common. Many patients developed raised antibody titers in both the O-agglutination test and the complement fixation test. The titers were often not positive until after a month. Moderate granulocytosis was the rule and monocytosis was rarely seen. Ampicillin alone or combined with an aminoglycoside seemed to be the drug of choice in the treatment of listeriosis. An alternative drug was tetracycline. Most deaths occurred within six days of onset of the illness. Early diagnosis and treatment were imperative. Most patients recovered and serious sequelae were rare.
Enhanced immunological memory responses to Listeria monocytogenes in rodents, as measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), adoptive transfer of DTH, and protective immunity, following Lactobacillus casei Shirota ingestion.
We have investigated the effect of orally administered Lactobacillus casei Shirota (L. casei) on immunological memory, as measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and acquired cellular resistance (ACR). The studies were performed in animal models in which the animals were rendered immune by a primary Listeria monocytogenes infection. It was shown that orally administered viable L. casei, and not heat-killed L. casei, enhanced significantly the antigen-specific DTH at 24 and 48 h in Wistar rats, Brown Norway rats, and BALB/c mice in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. L. casei had to be administered at least 3 days prior to the DTH assay at a daily dose of 10(9) CFU in order to induce significant effects. Long-term administration of 10(9) CFU of viable L. casei resulted in enhanced ACR, as demonstrated by reduced L. monocytogenes counts in the spleen and liver and diminished serum alanine aminotransferase activity after reinfection. Enhancement of cell-mediated immunological immune responses by L. casei was further established in an adoptive transfer study. Naïve recipient BALB/c mice, which were infused with nonadherent, immunized spleen cells from L. casei-fed donor BALB/c mice, showed significantly enhanced DTH responses at 24 and 48 h compared to recipient mice which received spleen cells from control donor mice. In conclusion, orally administered L. casei enhanced cell-mediated immunological memory responses. The effects relied on lactobacillus dose and viability as well as timing of supplementation and, further, appeared to be independent of host species or genetic background.
An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis affected consumers of on-farm manufactured dairy products from a summer farm in Sweden. Symptoms included diarrhoea, fever, stomach cramps and vomiting in 88, 60, 54 and 21% of cases identified. The median incubation period was 31 h. A cohort study with 33 consumers showed an attack rate of 52% and an association between the total amount of product eaten and illness (P=0.07). Twenty-seven of 32 (84%) stool samples cultured for Listeria monocytogenes tested positive, although there was no association between clinical disease and the isolation of L. monocytogenes. In addition, gene sequences for VTEC and ETEC were detected in 6 and 1 subjects, respectively. Bacteriological analysis of cheese samples revealed heavy contamination with L. monocytogenes and coagulase positive staphylococci in all of them and gene markers for VTEC in one of them. Molecular profiles for L. monocytogenes isolated from dairy products, stool samples and an abscess from 1 patient who developed septic arthritis were identical. Results of both microbiological and epidemiological analyses point to L. monocytogenes as the most likely cause of this outbreak. The finding of markers for VTEC in some humans and cheese samples means that a mixed aetiology at least in some cases cannot be conclusively ruled out.
Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (n = 932) isolated in Sweden during 1958-2010 from human patients with invasive listeriosis were characterized by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (AscI). Of the 932 isolates, 183 different PFGE types were identified, of which 83 were each represented by only one isolate. In all, 483 serovar 1/2a isolates were distributed over 114 PFGE types; 90 serovar 1/2b isolates gave 32 PFGE types; 21 serovar 1/2c isolates gave nine PFGE types; three serovar 3b isolates gave one PFGE type; and, 335 serovar 4b isolates gave 31 PFGE types. During the 1980s in Sweden, several serovar 4b cases were associated with the consumption of European raw soft cheese. However, as cheese-production hygiene has improved, the number of 4b cases has decreased. Since 1996, serovar 1/2a has been the dominant L. monocytogenes serovar in human listeriosis in Sweden. Therefore, based on current serovars and PFGE types, an association between human cases of listeriosis and the consumption of vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked salmon is suggested.
INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes rarely causes meningitis, but when it does the course can be severe and case fatality rates high. The article describes clinical and laboratory findings as well as treatment and outcome among patients treated for listerial meningitis at the Department of Infectious diseases, Rigshospitalet from 1983-2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patient records were reviewed for all adults with a diagnosis of listerial meningitis. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients with a discharge diagnosis of listerial meningitis were identified; records for 36 of these were available. 61% were men and 72% were older than 50 years. 64% had underlying, predisposing illnesses or took immunosuppressant medication. At presentation, patients had fever, neck stiffness, headache and/or change in mental status. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count was raised in all patients, but the number and differential count of leukocytes in the CSF varied. L monocytogenes was present in blood and/or CSF from all patients. Treatment records were available for 35 patients, all of whom received ampicillin. Four patients died; they all had underlying diseases and three were older than 50 years. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms the findings of other studies showing that listerial meningitis is more common in patients with underlying conditions, immunosuppression or age above 50. The case fatality rate is lower than that found in other reports, which could be due to the selection of patients. Listeriosis is an important differential diagnosis in predisposed individuals.