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Challenges in listeriosis cluster and outbreak investigations, Province of Quebec, 1997-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106640
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Jan;11(1):1-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Colette Gaulin
Geneviève Gravel
Sadjia Bekal
Andrea Currie
Danielle Ramsay
Sophie Roy
Author Affiliation
1 Ministère de la Santé et des Services Sociaux , Québec, Québec, Canada .
Source
Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Jan;11(1):1-7
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Listeria monocytogenes - isolation & purification
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Public Health
Quebec - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Public health authorities place a high priority on investigating listeriosis outbreaks, and these epidemiological investigations remain challenging. Some approaches have been described in the literature to address these challenges. This review of listeriosis clusters and outbreaks investigated in the Province of Quebec (Quebec) highlights investigative approaches that contributed to identifying the source of these outbreaks.
The Laboratoire de Santé Publique du Québec (LSPQ) implemented pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) molecular subtyping in 1997 to identify Listeria monocytogenes clusters among isolates from invasive listeriosis cases identified throughout Quebec. A cluster was defined as three cases or more with the same or similar PFGE profiles (=3 band difference) occurring over a 4-month period. An investigation was initiated if the epidemiologic indicators suggested a common source. Listeriosis data from LSPQ's database were reviewed to identify and describe clusters detected from 1997 to 2011, including those that led to an outbreak investigation. Epidemiological reports prepared following each outbreak were also reviewed.
Eleven clusters were identified in the province by LSPQ between 1997 and 2011. Outbreak investigations were initiated for six clusters, four of which involved more than 10 cases. Factors that contributed to identifying the source for three of these outbreaks highlighted the value of (1) making all stakeholders (food safety and inspection services, public health authorities, and laboratories) aware of any ongoing investigation and sharing relevant information even if the source is not yet identified; (2) promptly collecting food samples identified and considered as possible vehicles of infection identified during the interview of a Listeria case; (3) collecting food items and/or environmental samples in locations reported in common by cases in the same cluster.
Multiple approaches should be considered when investigating L. monocytogenes clusters. Networks to facilitate continuous exchange of human and food data between public health and food safety partners should be encouraged.
PubMed ID
24134667 View in PubMed
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Comparative investigations of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a turkey processing plant, turkey products, and from human cases of listeriosis in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196333
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Oct;125(2):303-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
B. Ojeniyi
J. Christensen
M. Bisgaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Oct;125(2):303-8
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
DNA, Bacterial - analysis
Denmark - epidemiology
Disinfection
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Food Contamination
Humans
Hygiene
Incidence
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - genetics - pathogenicity
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Poultry Diseases - microbiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Serotyping
Turkeys - microbiology
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from critical control points in a Danish turkey processing plant, from turkey products and from cases of human listeriosis. During processing in the plant the prevalence of L. monocytogenes ranged from 25.9 to 41.4%. Cleaning and disinfection decreased the prevalence to 6.4%. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using restriction endonuclease ApaI. Identical DNA types were obtained from turkey products and the processing line even after cleaning and disinfection. Two identical DNA types were demonstrated among isolates from turkey products and human cases of listeriosis. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in turkey products ranged from 7.3 to 17.4% for ready-to-eat products and raw products, respectively. Since none of the 27 flocks examined before slaughter sampled positive for L. monocytogenes and the prevalence increased during processing, the potential risk from turkey meat was apparently due to factory hygiene rather than intrinsic contamination of the turkeys.
PubMed ID
11117953 View in PubMed
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[Differentiantion of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in the Far East and European part of Russia on the basis of polymorphism of genes encoding invasion factors].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152832
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2008 Nov-Dec;(6):10-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
E A Zaitseva
K R Beliaev
I Iu Egorova
A I Suniaikin
N M Pukhovskaia
Iu S Musatov
L I Ivanov
D V Kolbasov
G P Somov
A L Gintsburg
S A Ermolaeva
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2008 Nov-Dec;(6):10-4
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Genes, Bacterial - genetics
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - genetics - pathogenicity
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Membrane Proteins - genetics
Molecular Epidemiology
Polymorphism, Genetic
Ribose-Phosphate Pyrophosphokinase - genetics
Russia - epidemiology
Siberia - epidemiology
Virulence - genetics
Virulence Factors - genetics
Abstract
Forty Listeria monocytogenes isolates obtained in European and Far East regions of Russia were differentiated on the basis of polymorphism of 5 markergenes. Total length of concatemers obtained after sequencing of internal fragments of genes inlA, inlB, inlC, inlE and prs was 3029 b.p. Comparative analysis of concatemers' sequences revealed 237 variable nucleotides. Totally, 25 sequence types were revealed, and isolates from European and Far East regions belonged to different types. On the dendrogram isolates split on 2 clusters, which correspond to early described phylogenetic lines of L. monocytogenes specie. Isolates obtained in European and Far East regions formed independent subclusters within main clusters. Fifteen clinical isolates of L. monocytogenes belonged to 7 different types. Analysis of epidemiologic data on time and place of isolates obtaining suggested that isolates of the same sequence type are epidemiologically related and might represent one strain; index of discrimination for proposed typing method was calculated as 0.982.
PubMed ID
19186537 View in PubMed
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Exposure of Listeria monocytogenes within an epidemic caused by butter in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192207
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2001 Oct 22;70(1-2):97-109
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-22-2001
Author
R. Maijala
O. Lyytikäinen
T. Autio
T. Aalto
L. Haavisto
T. Honkanen-Buzalski
Author Affiliation
Risk Analysis, National Veterinary and Food Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland. riitta.maijala@eela.fi
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2001 Oct 22;70(1-2):97-109
Date
Oct-22-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Butter - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Disease Susceptibility
Finland - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Food Microbiology
Food Service, Hospital
Humans
Immunocompromised Host
Length of Stay
Listeria monocytogenes - growth & development
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Abstract
Data on the levels of bacteria and the amounts of food consumed in food-borne outbreaks provides an excellent opportunity to study the effects of exposure to Listeria monocytogenes. Between June 1998 and April 1999, an outbreak caused by L. monocytogenes serotype 3a in butter occurred in Finland. The majority of the cases were immunocompromised and hospitalized at the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH), where 7-g butter packages produced by a dairy plant were used as the only butter brand. The butter had also been sold to 10 other central hospitals as well as to the retail market. Based on the data on hospital stay, butter consumption and the qualitative and quantitative analyses of L. monocytogenes in butter, the attack rates and exposure were estimated. Incubation studies on the naturally contaminated small butter packages showed that the levels found in the packages at the time of detection of the outbreak could reliably be used for these estimations. However, the levels of L. monocytogenes in 500-g packages increased. The attack rate among HUCH patients varied from 70 to 117 cases per 1000 patients at risk, depending on which estimate of the contamination level of butter (100-60%) was used. The highest single dose (7.7 x 10(4) CFU in one meal) could have been sufficient to cause the listeriosis cases at HUCH. However, this data also supports another hypothesis, according to which these listeriosis cases were caused by a prolonged daily consumption of contaminated butter during the hospital stay. The estimated daily dose, based on the hospital kitchen data or the highest detected level in a wholesale sample (11,000 CFU/g), would have varied from 1.4 x 10(1) to 2.2 x 10(3) CFU/day or from 2.2 x 10(4) to 3.1 x 10(5) CFU/day, respectively. The choice of the hypothesis has a crucial impact on the interpretation of this data for the dose-response estimations as well as for the discussion on Food Safety Objectives. Due to the susceptibility of hospital patients, special care must be taken in order to avoid even low levels of L. monocytogenes in food served.
PubMed ID
11759767 View in PubMed
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First documented outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes in Quebec, 2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182950
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 2003 Nov 1;29(21):181-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2003
Author
C. Gaulin
D. Ramsay
L. Ringuette
J. Ismaïl
Author Affiliation
Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux, Direction de la protection de la santé publique, Quebec City.
Source
Can Commun Dis Rep. 2003 Nov 1;29(21):181-6
Date
Nov-1-2003
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disease Outbreaks
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - classification
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Quebec - epidemiology
PubMed ID
14603730 View in PubMed
Less detail

Lessons from an outbreak of listeriosis related to vacuum-packed gravad and cold-smoked fish.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196107
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2000 Dec 20;62(3):173-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-20-2000
Author
W. Tham
H. Ericsson
S. Loncarevic
H. Unnerstad
M L Danielsson-Tham
Author Affiliation
Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden. wilhelm.tham@lmhyg.slu.se
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2000 Dec 20;62(3):173-5
Date
Dec-20-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Food Handling
Food Preservation
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - isolation & purification
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Oncorhynchus mykiss - microbiology
Refrigeration
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Vacuum
Abstract
The first lesson learned from this outbreak was that vacuum-packed rainbow trout is not only an excellent medium for the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, but may also cause human listeriosis. Another lesson is that one single fish processing plant may spread multiple clonal types of L. monocytogenes by selling contaminated products to consumers. Thus, when investigating fish-borne outbreaks of listeriosis one should identify and type several isolates of L. monocytogenes from each food and environmental sample, since multiple clonal types might be present. The outbreak described in this paper involved at least eight human cases, three clonal types of L. monocytogenes, and lasted for 11 months. During the outbreak investigation, L. monocytogenes was also isolated from another brand of rainbow trout found in the refrigerator of one of the patients. These latter isolates belonged to a clonal type not associated with the outbreak. However, this clonal type is of considerable interest since it has been associated with foodborne outbreaks of listeriosis in several countries, and is also the second most common clonal type among human clinical isolates of L. monocytogenes in Sweden. Besides the described outbreak, it is likely that vacuum-packed, cold-smoked and gravad rainbow trout have been involved in additional cases of foodborne listeriosis in Sweden.
PubMed ID
11156259 View in PubMed
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Listeriosis at Vancouver General Hospital, 1965-79.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature243994
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Dec 1;125(11):1217-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-1981
Author
A G Skidmore
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Dec 1;125(11):1217-21
Date
Dec-1-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aging
Alcoholism - complications
Canada
Endocarditis, Bacterial - complications
Female
Hospitals, General
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Kidney Failure, Chronic - complications
Listeria monocytogenes - isolation & purification
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Pregnancy
Retrospective Studies
Sepsis - microbiology
Abstract
The records were reviewed of all patients treated at the Vancouver General Hospital over the 15 years from 1965 through 1979 for infections proved by culture to have been caused by Listeria monocytogenes. Although listeriosis is not common in humans, certain groups seem to be susceptible - immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, neonates and the elderly. All these groups were represented among the 22 cases reviewed. There were 17 adults, 3 of whom were pregnant women who had only a mild influenza-like illness. Of the remaining 14 adults 9 were immunocompromised and 5 apparently immunocompetent; 7 presented with meningitis and 7 with bacteremia only. Of the five infants with neonatal listeriosis, two had early-onset disease (bacteremia) and three had the late-onset form (meningitis). Seven patients were treated with penicillin alone, seven with ampicillin alone and eight with penicillin or ampicillin combined with kanamycin, gentamicin or chloramphenicol. There were eight deaths: several were directly attributable to the listeriosis, but in others the severity of the underlying illness was an important factor. Serotypes 1 and 4b were equally common among the 16 specimens of L. monocytogenes that were typed.
Notes
Cites: Bacteriol Rev. 1966 Jun;30(2):309-824956900
Cites: Appl Microbiol. 1971 Mar;21(3):516-94994904
Cites: Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand B Microbiol Immunol. 1972;Suppl 229:1-1574624477
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1973 May;127(5):610-14698647
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1973 Jul 21;109(2):125-9 passim4198595
Cites: Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1972 Jan;1(1):30-44207757
Cites: J Pediatr. 1976 Mar;88(3):481-3812974
Cites: Mt Sinai J Med. 1977 Jan-Feb;44(1):42-59403404
Cites: J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. 1963 Jun;70:481-213972833
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1964 Aug 1;89:915-2314207559
PubMed ID
6800624 View in PubMed
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[Pulse-electrotypes of Listeria monocytogenes strains, isolated in Moscow].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173014
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2005 Jul-Aug;(4):19-22
Publication Type
Article
Author
N Ia Salova
N N Filatov
E V Sizykh
A N Gerasimov
L A Riapis
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2005 Jul-Aug;(4):19-22
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Food Microbiology
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - genetics
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Meat - microbiology
Moscow - epidemiology
Vegetables - microbiology
Abstract
The characterization of the pulse-electrotypes of L. monocytogenes, isolated in 2003-2004 in Moscow from different sources, is presented. Among the cultures, isolated from humans, one outbreak pulse electrotype was detected and from different objects in buildings where a wide variety of food products was produced several probably related and unrelated pulse-electrotypes were obtained. The conclusion was made that several independent L. monocytogenes clones existed on the territory of Moscow, and many products supplied to retail trade and public catering enterprises were contaminated with these clones. Pulse electrophoresis was shown to be the most effective method for intraspecific typing and the study of the molecular epidemiology of listeriosis. Grounds for the necessity to improve the microbiological diagnostics of L. monocytogenes infection are given.
PubMed ID
16146221 View in PubMed
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Widespread listeriosis outbreak attributable to pasteurized cheese, which led to extensive cross-contamination affecting cheese retailers, Quebec, Canada, 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128206
Source
J Food Prot. 2012 Jan;75(1):71-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Colette Gaulin
Danielle Ramsay
Sadjia Bekal
Author Affiliation
Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux, 1075 chemin Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada G1S 2M1. Colette.gaulin@msss.gouv.qc.ca
Source
J Food Prot. 2012 Jan;75(1):71-8
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cheese - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Listeriosis - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Quebec - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
A major Listeria monocytogenes outbreak occurred in the province of Quebec, Canada, in 2008, involving a strain of L. monocytogenes (LM P93) characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and associated with the consumption of pasteurized milk cheese. This report describes the results of the ensuing investigation. All individuals affected with LM P93 across the province were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Microbiological and environmental investigations were conducted by the Quebec's Food Inspection Branch of Ministère de l'Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l'Alimentation du Québec among retailers and cheese plants involved in the outbreak. Between 8 June and 31 December 2008, 38 confirmed cases of LM P93 were reported to public health authorities, including 16 maternal-neonatal cases (14 pregnant women, and two babies born to asymptomatic mothers). The traceback of many brands of cheese that tested positive for LM P93 collected from retailers identified two cheese plants contaminated by L. monocytogenes strains on 3 and 4 September. PFGE profiles became available for both plants on 8 September, and confirmed that a single plant was associated with the outbreak. Products from these two plants were distributed to more than 300 retailers in the province, leading to extensive cross-contamination of retail stock. L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous, and contamination can occur subsequent to heat treatment, which usually precedes cheese production. Contaminated soft-textured cheese is particularly prone to bacterial growth. Ongoing regulatory and industry efforts are needed to decrease the presence of Listeria in foods, including pasteurized products. Retailers should be instructed about the risk of cross-contamination, even with soft pasteurized cheese and apply methods to avoid it.
PubMed ID
22221357 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.