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Health risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211732
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 1996 Jun;30(1-2):145-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1996
Author
J M Farber
W H Ross
J. Harwig
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Food Directorate, Sir F.G. Banting Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. jfarber@hpb.hwc ca
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 1996 Jun;30(1-2):145-56
Date
Jun-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Food Microbiology - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - growth & development
Listeriosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
In this review, the major steps used in the formulation of a health risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in foods are discussed. Data is given on the numbers of human listeriosis cases reported in Canada along with the current Canadian regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes. Four major steps in the health risk assessment of this organism in foods, namely, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization, were examined. For hazard characterization, since it is known that no direct human dose response data is available for L.monocytogenes, a flexible dose response model called the Weibull-Gamma model was evaluated. For the exposure assessment, pâté and soft cheese, both high-risk foods in terms of listeriosis infection, were used as prototypes in some of the models that were used. Using disappearance data for cheese and 100 g as a typical serving, the data suggested an average of 102 servings per capita, per year in Canada. As a rough approximation, for L. monocytogenes, reference ID10 and ID90 dose levels of response for both normal and high risk populations were given as 10(7) and 10(9) for normal individuals, and 10(5) and 10(7) for high-risk people. The corresponding dose response models were graphically displayed. These models exhibited a higher degree of susceptibility and less host/pathogen heterogeneity for the higher risk group. The range of doses between the ID10 and ID90 reference values corresponded roughly to levels associated with cases of listeriosis. In the risk characterization stage, dose response data was combined with some predictive growth modeling data of L. monocytogenes on pâté, assuming an initial exposure of a single cell for food stored at 4 degrees and 8 degrees C. Storage of pâté at 4 degrees C for more than 35 days resulted in a rapidly increasing risk for the high risk population, while storage at 8 degrees C produced a similar risk after about 13 days. In addition, an equation, used to calculate the average probability of acquiring human listeriosis in Canada from soft and semi-soft cheese consumption, was formulated. Computations derived from this equation indicated a substantial level consistency between reported data and assumptions of the risk assessment model. An important part of risk characterization or possibly risk management is characterizing the economic and social consequences of estimated risks. The total annual estimated cost of listeriosis illnesses and deaths in Canada was estimated to be between 11.1 and 12.6 million dollars.
PubMed ID
8856380 View in PubMed
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Listeria monocytogenes: a continuing challenge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194105
Source
Nutr Rev. 2001 Jun;59(6):183-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
C W Donnelly
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, The University of Vermont, Burlington, 05405, USA.
Source
Nutr Rev. 2001 Jun;59(6):183-94
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Colony Count, Microbial
Disease Outbreaks
Food Contamination
Food Handling - standards
Food Microbiology
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Incidence
Listeria monocytogenes - pathogenicity
Listeriosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Meat - microbiology - standards
Quality Control
Safety
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
As a leading cause of death from a foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes continues to cause sporadic cases and outbreaks of illness. The most recent of these outbreaks in the United States involved consumption of hot dogs, with 101 cases of illness and 21 deaths reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the years 1998-1999. Epidemiologic analysis determined that contamination levels in hot dogs were remarkably low (0.3 CFU [colony-forming units] L monocytogenes serotype 4b/g). That same year, manufacturers of hot dogs and luncheon meats collectively recalled more than 500,000 pounds of product owing to possible Listeria contamination. This article, through focus on issues such as reexamination of zero-tolerance policies, improvements in detection and enumeration procedures, the impact of epidemiologic innovations, and measures needed to further reduce the incidence of listeriosis will highlight why L monocytogenes remains a continuing challenge for the food industry.
PubMed ID
11444596 View in PubMed
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Source
CMAJ. 2008 Oct 7;179(8):795-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-7-2008
Author
Robert Bortolussi
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, IWK Health Centre and Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS. bob.bortolussi@iwk.nshealth.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2008 Oct 7;179(8):795-7
Date
Oct-7-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food Contamination - prevention & control
Food Handling - standards
Humans
Incidence
Infection Control - methods
Listeria monocytogenes - isolation & purification
Listeriosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Male
Meat-Packing Industry - standards
Risk assessment
Notes
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1983 Jan 27;308(4):203-66401354
Cites: Int J Food Microbiol. 1996 Jun;30(1-2):145-568856380
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 15;41(6):778-8416107973
Cites: Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2005;2(5):456-6016322600
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 2004 Aug;132(4):769-7215310181
Cites: Euro Surveill. 2006;11(6):85-816801695
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Cites: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Jul;25(7):433-4216773392
PubMed ID
18787096 View in PubMed
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Present situation in Canada regarding Listeria monocytogenes and ready-to-eat seafood products.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196106
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2000 Dec 20;62(3):247-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-20-2000
Author
J M Farber
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Food Directorate, Sir F.G. Banting Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario. jeff_farber@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Int J Food Microbiol. 2000 Dec 20;62(3):247-51
Date
Dec-20-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Fish Products - microbiology
Food Contamination - legislation & jurisprudence
Food Microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Listeria monocytogenes - growth & development
Listeriosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Public Policy
Seafood - microbiology
Abstract
The present situation regarding Listeria monocytogenes and ready-to-eat (RTE) seafood is discussed. An updated regulatory policy on L. monocytogenes directs inspection and compliance action to those RTE foods capable of supporting growth of the organism and is based on a combination of inspection, environmental sampling and product testing. The incidence of L. monocytogenes in imported seafood products in 1996-1997 and 1997-1998 was 0.88 and 0.3%, respectively. With respect to domestic products, an analysis of 347 RTE foods in 1997-1998 and 1998-1999, at one of the large fish inspection labs in the Maritimes, revealed an absence of L. monocytogenes. The only seafood product linked to suspect cases of listeriosis in Canada was imported.
PubMed ID
11156268 View in PubMed
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Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis applied for comparing Listeria monocytogenes strains involved in outbreaks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221313
Source
Can J Microbiol. 1993 Apr;39(4):395-401
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1993
Author
C. Buchrieser
R. Brosch
B. Catimel
J. Rocourt
Author Affiliation
Laboratoire des Listeria, World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Foodborne Listeriosis, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
Source
Can J Microbiol. 1993 Apr;39(4):395-401
Date
Apr-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Canada - epidemiology
DNA Fingerprinting
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
France - epidemiology
Genome, Bacterial
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - genetics
Listeriosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Restriction Mapping
Switzerland - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Recent food-borne outbreaks of human listeriosis as well as numerous sporadic cases have been mainly caused by Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strains. Thus, it was of interest to find out whether a certain clone or a certain few clones were responsible for these cases and especially for outbreaks. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of large chromosomal DNA restriction fragments generated by ApaI, SmaI, or NotI to analyse 75 L. monocytogenes strains isolated during six major and eight smaller recent listeriosis outbreaks. These strains could be divided into 20 different genomic varieties. Thirteen of 14 strains isolated during major epidemics in Switzerland (1983-1987), the United States (California, 1985) and Denmark (1985-1987) demonstrated indistinguishable DNA restriction patterns. In contrast, strains responsible for the outbreaks in Canada (Nova Scotia, 1981), the United States (Massachusetts, 1983), France (Anjou, 1975-1976), New Zealand (1969), and Austria (1986) and some smaller outbreaks in France (1987, 1988, 1989) were each characterized by particular combinations of DNA restriction patterns. Seventy-seven percent of the tested strains could be classified into the previously described ApaI group A (Brosch et al. 1991), demonstrating a very close genomic relatedness. Because 49% of the epidemic strains selected for this study belonged to phagovar 2389/2425/3274/2671/47/108/340 or 2389/47/108/340, fifty-six additional strains of these phagovars, isolated from various origins, were also typed to determine whether differences in DNA restriction profiles between epidemic and randomly selected strains of the same phagovars could be pointed out. Variations in DNA patterns appeared more frequently within randomly selected strains than within epidemic strains.
PubMed ID
8500010 View in PubMed
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Sequence typing confirms that a predominant Listeria monocytogenes clone caused human listeriosis cases and outbreaks in Canada from 1988 to 2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126958
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2012 May;50(5):1748-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Stephen J Knabel
Aleisha Reimer
Bindhu Verghese
Mei Lok
Jennifer Ziegler
Jeffrey Farber
Franco Pagotto
Morag Graham
Celine A Nadon
Matthew W Gilmour
Author Affiliation
Department of Food Science, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. sjk9@psu.edu
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2012 May;50(5):1748-51
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Cluster analysis
DNA, Bacterial - chemistry - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Listeriosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Molecular Epidemiology
Molecular Sequence Data
Molecular Typing
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
Human listeriosis outbreaks in Canada have been predominantly caused by serotype 1/2a isolates with highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) each identified a diverse population of Listeria monocytogenes isolates, and within that, both methods had congruent subtypes that substantiated a predominant clone (clonal complex 8; virulence type 59; proposed epidemic clone 5 [ECV]) that has been causing human illness across Canada for more than 2 decades.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22337989 View in PubMed
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Surveillance for Listeria monocytogenes and listeriosis, 1995-2004.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148062
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Apr;138(4):559-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
C G Clark
J. Farber
F. Pagotto
N. Ciampa
K. Doré
C. Nadon
K. Bernard
L-K Ng
Author Affiliation
Bacteriology and Enteric Disease Program, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 3R2, Canada. clifford_clark@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Apr;138(4):559-72
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Blood - microbiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cerebrospinal Fluid - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
DNA Fingerprinting
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Female
Genotype
Humans
Incidence
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Listeriosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Serotyping
Young Adult
Abstract
Canadian cases and outbreaks of illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes between 1995 and 2004 were assessed. Isolates (722 total) were characterized by serotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to provide a means of detecting case clusters. Rates of listeriosis remained fairly consistent during the period of study, and patient characteristics were similar to those seen in studies of other populations. Most isolates were obtained from blood and cerebrospinal fluid, although during some outbreak investigations isolates were also obtained from stools. Serotype 1/2a predominated in isolates from patients in Canada, followed by serotypes 4b and 1/2b. Outbreaks caused by L. monocytogenes that occurred during the period of study were caused by isolates with serotypes 1/2a and 4b. A retrospective analysis of PFGE data uncovered several clusters that might have represented undetected outbreaks, suggesting that comprehensive prospective PFGE analysis coupled with prompt epidemiological investigations might lead to improved outbreak detection and control.
PubMed ID
19818199 View in PubMed
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Verification of causal relationships between Listeria monocytogenes isolates implicated in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218255
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1994 May;32(5):1280-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1994
Author
J. Czajka
C A Batt
Author Affiliation
Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1994 May;32(5):1280-7
Date
May-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
California - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Food Microbiology
Foodborne Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Listeriosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Mice
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Genetic
Serotyping
Abstract
Food and clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes recovered from four different outbreaks of listeriosis were analyzed by their PCR-based randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns to verify their causal relationships. The generation of DNA fingerprints by PCR-based RAPD analysis is a fast and sensitive method for the epidemiological tracking and identification of bacteria implicated in food poisoning outbreaks. The L. monocytogenes strains used in the study were obtained from the following four outbreaks: California, 1985, Mexican-style cheese; Canadian Maritime Provinces, 1981, coleslaw; Canada, 1989, brie cheese; and Canada, 1989, alfalfa tablets. RAPD profiles were generated by using random 10-mer primers for at least one food and one clinical isolate recovered from each outbreak. Identical profiles for 20 different primers were observed for each pair of food and clinical isolates from two of the four outbreaks. Isolates from the outbreak involving alfalfa tablets exhibited identical patterns for 19 primers; however, primer OPA-1 produced one additional 1.8-kb fragment, designated OPA-1-1.8, that was found in the food isolate but not in the corresponding clinical isolate. Hybridization analysis revealed that the absence of the OPA-1-1.8 polymorphic fragment in the clinical isolate was due to a deletion of at least 1.8 kb. Loss of the OPA-1-1.8 polymorphic fragment could not be induced by infective passage of the L. monocytogenes isolate from the alfalfa tablet through a mouse or by growth of this isolate under selective conditions. This suggests that the isolate recovered from the food was not identical to the isolate recovered from the patient. The ability to produce unique RAPD patterns allows for the discrimination between isolates even if they are of the same serotype and multilocus enzyme electrophoretic type.
Notes
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PubMed ID
8051257 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.