Increasing evidence suggests that alveolar macrophages (AM) are involved in asthma pathogenesis. To better understand the role that these cells play, we investigated the capacity of AM from allergy-resistant rat, Sprague Dawley (SD), to modulate airway hyperresponsiveness of allergy-susceptible rat, Brown Norway (BN). AM of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BN rats were eliminated by intratracheal instillation of liposomes containing clodronate. AM from OVA-sensitized SD rats were transferred into AM-depleted BN rats 24 h before allergen challenge. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was measured the following day. Instillation of liposomes containing clodronate in BN rats eliminated 85% AM after 3 d compared with saline liposomes. Methacholine concentration needed to increase lung resistance by 200% (EC200RL) was significantly lower in OVA-challenged BN rats (27.9 +/- 2.8 mg/ml) compared with SD rats (63.9 +/- 8.6 mg/ml). However, when AM from SD rats were transferred into AM-depleted BN rats, airway responsiveness (64.0 +/- 11.3 mg/ml) was reduced to the level of naïve rats (54.4 +/- 3.7 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transfer of AM from BN rats into SD rats did not modulate airway responsiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence showing that AM may protect against the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.
Comment In: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jul;31(1):1-215208095
Comment In: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jul;31(1):3-715208096
Epidemiologic studies continue to find an increased prevalence of rhinitis, asthma, and atopy in more westernized countries. Both allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are risk factors for development of asthma, particularly in adulthood. In patients who have both asthma and rhinitis, treatment of the latter decreases the likelihood of emergency department visits or hospitalization for asthma. The protective effect of intranasal cortico-steroids is much greater than that of antihistamines. This mirrors the effect on rhinitis symptoms, in which nasal corticosteroids are much more effective than antihistamines, leukotriene receptor antagonists, or the combination of both. In patients with severe asthma, sinus mucosal thickening on computed tomography (CT) correlates with the severity of lower airway disease indicated by sputum eosinophilia, exhaled nitrous oxide (NO), functional residual capacity, and diffusing capacity. Preseasonal specific immunotherapy (SIT) is less effective, but additive to treatment with omalizumab. It is also somewhat less effective in reducing nasal symptoms than nasal corticosteroids; however, it is superior to them for reducing lower airway inflammation. SIT in children with only allergic rhinitis reduces both the incidence of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. High-dose sublingual immunotherapy appears to be safe and effective, but less effective than injection immunotherapy. It is not clear that there are cost savings with sublingual immunotherapy, as home administration savings may be offset by the much larger amount of allergen extracts required. New approaches to allergen immunotherapy, designed to increase efficacy and safety, include conjugation of allergens to immunostimulatory sequences and encapsulation in liposomes. Cross-reactivity between inhalants and foods demonstrated by skin prick tests is more predictive of clinically important sensitivity than is that demonstrated by RAST testing. The latter, because of cross-reacting profilins, is often clinically irrelevant.
Organisms living in extremely cold environments possess mechanisms to survive low temperatures. Among the known cold-induced genes, cold-shock proteins (Csps) are the most prominent. A csp-homologous gene, cspBPi, has been cloned from the Arctic bacterium Polaribacter irgensii KOPRI 22228, and overexpression of this gene greatly increased the freezing tolerance of its host. This protein consists of a unique N-terminal domain and a well conserved C-terminal cold shock domain. To elucidate the detailed mechanisms involved in the extraordinary freeze-tolerance conferred by CspBPi, we identified the responsible domain by mutational analysis. Changes of residues in the cold shock domain that are crucial for binding RNA or single-stranded DNA did not impair the ability of the host to survive freezing stress. All domain-shuffled CspBPi variants containing the N-terminal domain retained the ability to confer superior freeze-tolerance. Slow electrophoretic mobility and far-UV circular dichroism spectra of the N-terminal domain suggested an intrinsically disordered structure for this region. The N-terminal domain also bound to lipid vesicles in vitro. This lipid vesicle binding characteristic is shared with other intrinsically disordered proteins, such as a-synuclein and plant dehydrins, known to confer cold-tolerance when overexpressed, suggesting a mechanism for cold-survival through membrane binding.
Prion mRNA translation inhibition by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODN) incorporated into immunoliposomes was investigated. It was shown that asODN complementary to cap region, start-codon region and a part of open reading frame can decrease the prion expression by 80% in L1210 cell line and by 60% in prion-replicating organs of laboratory rats. These results give grounds for further research asODN to be used as a means of prevention and treatment of prion infections.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin-filled phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PCLs) on peroxynitrite (ONOO-)-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Experiments were done using different experimental models, including isolated rat papillary muscle, Langendorff perfused rat hearts, and anesthetized animals. Being exogenously applied in a concentration greater than 50 microM, ONOO- caused inhibition of isometric twitch amplitude in isolated papillary muscles and led to an appearance of arrhythmias. Decomposed ONOO- had no similar effects and reversibly increased twitch amplitude. Authentic nitric oxide (NO, 100 microM) did not produce arrhythmias and had no significant effect on twitch amplitude. Verapamil and ruthenium red were with-out effect on ONOO- -induced arrhythmias, whereas tetrodotoxin and nicorandil effectively prevented arrhythmias development. Ouabain increased the arrhythmogenic effect of ONOO-. ONOO- significantly decreased coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and mean left-ventricular pressure (MLVP) in the Langendorff perfused rat heart and produced severe arrhythmias. Authentic nitric oxide (NO) decreased CPP and MLVP insignificantly and resulted in a low incidence of arrhythmias. The NO donor SIN-1 in doses greater than 50 microM led to the appearance of low-incidence arrhythmias in anesthetized rats. Intraventricular injection of ONOO- promotes the appearance of a high incidence of arrhythmias in anesthetized rats and decreased MLVP. PCLs filled with the antioxidant quercetin restored normal cardiac contractility in both isolated tissues and anesthetizes animals. In conclusion, we hypothesized that ONOO-, but not its decomposed products, can initiate membrane lipid peroxidation and damage the phospholipid environment of ionic channels in myocardial cell plasma membranes inducing abnormal cardiac action potentials, arrhythmogenesis, and contractile dysfunction. Quercetin-filled PCL provide reliable protection against peroxynitrite-induced myocardial injury in isolated cardiac tissues and anesthetized animals primarily as a result of the decomposition of endogenously formed ONOO-.
AIM: To analyze the relation between pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in liposomal form and antitumor efficacy toward cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive variants of Guerin carcinoma. METHODS: Concentration of platinum was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (C115M1 "Selmi", Ukraine). Elimination constant was calculated based on the dynamics of cisplatin concentration in time period between 1 h to 24 h using nonlinear regression analysis. Area under curve (AUC24) was calculated by the trapezium method. RESULTS: It was shown that for liposomal form of cisplatin (LCp) AUC24 in tumor practically didn't depend on the level of the tumor sensitivity, while in animals with the resistant variant (CpRGC), AUC24 for free cisplatin (FCp) decreased by 70% less (p
In the review the information about biological properties of liposomes and their application perspectives as independent medications so as transmitters of medicinal preparations is generalized. Approaches to the directed transport of biologically active matters by the different liposome types are discussed. Simultaneously solving of two important tasks on the decline of preparation toxicity and increase of their efficiency are proposed. The data about liposome distributing features at the different ways of their infusion in an organism and the mechanisms of interaction of corpuscles with the surface of target cells are provided. The most perspective aspects of liposomes and drugs in liposomal form at the modern stage of development of biotechnology, pharmacology and immunopharmacology and their practical application in oncology, antibiotic therapies, chemotherapy of infectious diseases, diabetes, gene engineering, treatment of Parkinson's syndrome, creation of artificial oxygen transporters, immunotherapy, allergology, vaccination and other are discussed.
Economic evaluations of new AIDS treatment drugs are important. For physicians treating patients with Kaposi's sarcoma, these issues are especially meaningful since cancer treatment costs for this group of patients are high. Kaposi's sarcoma is the most frequently occurring neoplasm in AIDS patients, affecting about 15% of this population. In our study, a retrospective economic evaluation has been made based on data from two randomized phase III clinical studies of severely immune-compromised HIV-infected individuals and which compares liposomal doxorubicin with liposomal daunorubicin. We have estimated the cost and cost effectiveness of the two drugs. The costs per complete or partial response are USS 18340 for daunorubicin and USS 8871 for doxorubicin. The incremental cost per additional responder by using liposomal doxorubicin instead of liposomal daunorubicin is USS 1910. Sensitivity analysis shows that these results hold over a wide range of assumptions.
Immunoliposomes were constructed with an antibody specific to glial cells. They were used to examine the specificity and efficacy of cell type plasmid transfection. Liposomes contained a beta-galactosidase gene under control of an SV-40 promotor. Two different monoclonal antibodies of a different subclass, IgM and IgG, were examined for their targeting ability using immunoliposomes. Cultured C6 glioma (specific target cell type) and NIH 3T3 (control cell type, fibroblast) cells were transfected using these immunoliposomes. Results indicate a three-fold increase in transfection by the glial specific immunoliposomes, "gliasomes", in glial cell culture over control liposomes. Gliasomes were exposed to NIH 3T3 cells and showed no enhanced transfection over control liposomes. Gliasomes were tested for their specificity by the addition of excess antibody to the cell culture in order to saturate specific receptors on C6 glioma cells. Results indicate a reduced transfection, nearly three-fold, in cells that were saturated with excess antibody prior to exposure to the immunoliposomes.
Cytochrome P-450 thermal inactivation rate, and content of protein sulfhydryl groups and cytochrome P-450 in the microsomal liver fraction of rats at different stages of Huerin's carcinoma growth were investigated. Liposomal form of BCU administration on the background of preliminary (for 2 hours) administration of phosphatidylcholine liposomes suspension was performed. The low level of cytochrome P-450, protein SH-groups in microsomal liver fraction and increase of the rate of transition of microsomal cytochrome P-450 in P-420 was shown in the dynamics of Huerin's carcinoma growth in an organism. Low microsomal cytochrome P-450 distraction was shown in the rat liver under conditions of antitumor liposomal preparation BCU injection on the 21st day after the transplantation of Huerin's carcinoma. At the same time nonliposomal BCU caused the opposite effect. The preliminary administration of phosphatidylcholine liposomes favours the approach of the investigated parameters to the control values on the terminal stages of tumour growth.