The 1H NMR spectra of the lipid region of human plasma from healthy adults, neonates, and patients with malignant and nonmalignant tumors have been recorded on a JNM-GX400 FT spectrometer operating at 399.6 MHz for protons. The chemical shifts of methylene and methyl groups of plasma lipids were measured with respect to the higher field component of the methyl proton resonance of the lactate molecule. The results show that there are changes in the chemical shifts of the methylene proton resonances among the plasma from healthy adults, adults with tumors, and neonates. The shifts observed in the case of cancer patients and neonates are in the direction opposite to the shift measured from the plasma of healthy adults. Thus, the observed changes cannot be explained by the activity in the cell proliferation of tissues which is high in the cases of both healthy neonates and patients with malignant tumors, but they most probably reflect the different lipoprotein compositions of neonates, healthy adults, and adults with tumors.
The study sought to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, may simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone disease in opposite directions.
High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation.
A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated.
Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5.9% (0.20 mmol/l) for individuals with a score =8.0 (prevalence = 11%) versus
Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 May 27;63(20):2129-3024657684
Variations in the blood levels of total cholesterol (C), triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDLPC , HDLPC ) and atherogenicity ratio were examined over time in 4841 men and 2323 women living in Leningrad. The mean values of the parameters studied were established for different age groups. Considerable differences were revealed in the blood lipid profile in men versus women. Higher levels of HDLPC and lower concentrations of LDLPC in women under 50 as compared with age-matched men account for a later development and milder course of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women.
The offspring of individuals with a history of premature myocardial infarction are at increased risk of premature coronary attacks. The aim of this study was to determine parent/offspring associations of coronary risk factors in families affected by premature myocardial infarction and to compare these to corresponding control families.
The cohort of cases consisted of 71 male survivors of myocardial infarction and their 128 descendants (aged 7-18 years). As control families, 85 randomly selected healthy males with their 66 descendants were investigated. Besides traditional risk factors, serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), apolipoprotein (apo) E phenotypes and lipoprotein(a) were analyzed.
In the offspring of the patients, fibrinogen and atherogenic lipoprotein parameters were higher than in the corresponding controls, but hsCRP, lipoprotein(a) and anthropometric data did not differ between the groups. The adult-offspring positive correlations were detected in fibrinogen and in almost all measured lipoprotein fractions in the affected families; amongst the controls, the association was observed only for triglyceride levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated independent association of offspring apoB, apoA-I and fibrinogen levels with a family history of premature myocardial infarction.
The most informative predictors of future coronary attacks during childhood are apoB-100 and apoB/apoA-I ratio; serum hsCRP and lipoprotein(a) do not have predictive value in childhood.
BACKGROUND: Alimentary lipemia has been associated with coronary heart disease and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). This study was designed to investigate the relations of subclasses of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) with IMT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-six healthy 50-year-old men with an apolipoprotein (apo) E3/E3 genotype underwent an oral fat tolerance test and B-mode carotid ultrasound examination. The apo B-48 and apo B-100 contents of each fraction of TRLs were determined as a measure of chylomicron remnant and VLDL particle concentrations. In the fasting state, LDL cholesterol (P
We have assessed the expression of heterozygosity for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency by studying a single large French Canadian family comprising 92 persons including 21 carriers of the catalytically defective P207L mutation. Phenotypic changes distinguishing heterozygotes from controls were seen early, before the age of 40 and often before 20 years of age. In the total cohort these changes included an elevation in the mean very low density (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) triglyceride (+69%; P = 0.01 and +40%; P = 0.001) and cholesterol (+51%; P = 0.03 and +67%; P = 0.007) and apoB levels but decreased HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol, (-32%; P = 0.01 and -15%; P = 0.002 respectively). While the lipid compositions of VLDL and IDL were similar between heterozygotes and controls, the low density (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) of carriers were triglyceride enriched. Heterozygotes also had a markedly lower apoC-III ratio (apoC-III in supernatant/apoC-III in heparin precipitate) (1.46 vs. 3.86 P = 1 x 10(-4)) indicating a substantial enrichment of VLDL and IDL with apoC-III and depletion of HDL apoC-III supporting this ratio as an effective index for efficiency of lipolysis. LpA-I was markedly reduced (0.34 vs. 0.43 P = 1 x 10(-5)) showing that levels of this particle are partly dependent on LPL catalytic activity. Heterozygotes manifest from an early age with a markedly reduced HDL, LpA-I, apoC-III ratio and an increased TC/HDLc ratio which would predict a relatively increased risk of premature coronary artery disease, compared to their normal siblings.
The exons of the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene in DNA samples from two of the original Swedish Fish Eye Disease patients have been amplified by polymerase chain reactions and sequenced by the dideoxy method. The two patients apparently were unrelated. In both patients a mutation in codon 10 of the first exon was found, altering proline10 to leucine. We note that the mutations causing Fish Eye Disease as well as those causing classical LCAT deficiency are spread over most of the translated gene. Why these various mutations in the same gene give rise to two different disease phenotypes remains unexplained.
Erratum In: Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992 Apr 15;184(1):549
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal semi-dominant disorder caused by defects in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene and is a well-documented risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. The LDLR genes of five Swedish children with FH were examined in this study. Initial mutation screening was performed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with enzymatically amplified exon-sized fragments, each containing a tailing GC-rich requence. The GC-clamped fragments had been synthesized with a restriction site adjacent to the intron-corresponding sequence to allow detachment of the clamps, thereby rendering the fragments suitable for subsequent analysis by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of samples from patients with no DGGE-detectable mutations. In addition, all the LDLR genes of the patients were screened for large alterations by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Following this strategy, seven different, potentially disease-causing mutations were detected in the five children with FH. Six of the alterations, five single-base substitutions and one dinucleotide deletion, have not previously been described. DGGE detected six of the mutations and SSCP the seventh.
Some indices of the antioxidant status (content of the alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid, activity of the glutathione reductase and aryl-esterase) and lipid peroxidation processes in the liver, blood serum, and some blood serum lipoprotein fractions of the Golden Syrian hamsters of different sex and age status under high-caloric diet were investigated. It has been shown that the hypercaloric diet leads to a decreaseng of reduced glutathione content and increase of the level of lipid peroxidation products in the liver of experimental animals. The ascorbic acids content in male liver is decreased and in female liver is increased. In the blood serum under hypercaloric nutrition the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and alpha-tocopherol content a decrease in ApoB-lipoproteins and HDL is observed. Simultaneously the ascorbic acid content is increased in the blood serum of all experimental animals. Activation of free-radical oxidation both in the liver, and blood serum is more significant in males compared with females. The data obtained allow to suppose that atherosclerotic complications of metabolic syndrome development may be connected to the lipoprotein oxidant status infringement.