Variations in the blood levels of total cholesterol (C), triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDLPC , HDLPC ) and atherogenicity ratio were examined over time in 4841 men and 2323 women living in Leningrad. The mean values of the parameters studied were established for different age groups. Considerable differences were revealed in the blood lipid profile in men versus women. Higher levels of HDLPC and lower concentrations of LDLPC in women under 50 as compared with age-matched men account for a later development and milder course of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women.
During 1975-1977 twenty-nine males surviving acute myocardial infarction at an age between 40-44 years were registered in Gothenburg, Sweden. Twenty-five of these were studied and compared with two control groups. One group, the reference group (RG, n = 76), was randomly selected from the male population from which the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group was derived. A second group, the matched control group (MC, n = 47), consisted of men with no history of coronary heart disease, matched with patients for age, serum cholesterol and body weight index. Serum triglyceride levels were higher and alphalipoprotein cholesterol lower in the AMI group than in RG. Prior to infarction, patients had a higher degree of physical activity at work and a higher tobacco consumption than RG. When AMI cases were compared with MC subjects lower alphalipoprotein cholesterol levels were found in AMI, and they also had a higher tobacco consumption prior to infarction. There was a negative correlation between alphalipoprotein cholesterol levels and tobacco consumption in the RG. The differences in alphalipoprotein cholesterol levels between AMI cases and controls could not attributed to smoking habits, but smoking may at least to some extent exert its effect as a risk factor through influence on alphalipoprotein cholesterol levels.
We have assessed the expression of heterozygosity for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency by studying a single large French Canadian family comprising 92 persons including 21 carriers of the catalytically defective P207L mutation. Phenotypic changes distinguishing heterozygotes from controls were seen early, before the age of 40 and often before 20 years of age. In the total cohort these changes included an elevation in the mean very low density (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) triglyceride (+69%; P = 0.01 and +40%; P = 0.001) and cholesterol (+51%; P = 0.03 and +67%; P = 0.007) and apoB levels but decreased HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol, (-32%; P = 0.01 and -15%; P = 0.002 respectively). While the lipid compositions of VLDL and IDL were similar between heterozygotes and controls, the low density (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) of carriers were triglyceride enriched. Heterozygotes also had a markedly lower apoC-III ratio (apoC-III in supernatant/apoC-III in heparin precipitate) (1.46 vs. 3.86 P = 1 x 10(-4)) indicating a substantial enrichment of VLDL and IDL with apoC-III and depletion of HDL apoC-III supporting this ratio as an effective index for efficiency of lipolysis. LpA-I was markedly reduced (0.34 vs. 0.43 P = 1 x 10(-5)) showing that levels of this particle are partly dependent on LPL catalytic activity. Heterozygotes manifest from an early age with a markedly reduced HDL, LpA-I, apoC-III ratio and an increased TC/HDLc ratio which would predict a relatively increased risk of premature coronary artery disease, compared to their normal siblings.
The net mass transfer (NMT) of cholesteryl esters (CEs), triglycerides (TGs), and phospholipids (PLs) between lipoproteins was measured after incubation of fresh plasma for up to 2 hours from 18 male alcohol abusers and 17 male volunteer control subjects. In alcohol abusers the mean value of CE NMT was 3.7 nmol.mL-1.h-1 from apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-containing lipoproteins) to HDL and in control subjects 8.7 nmol.mL-1.h-1 from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins. The NMT of PL was higher in alcohol abusers than in control subjects (35.0 vs 11.6 nmol.mL-1.h-1 from apoB-containing lipoproteins to HDL, respectively), and plasma PL transfer protein (TP) activity was 33% higher (P
Occupational and residential noise exposure has been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Alteration of serum lipid levels has been proposed as a possible causal pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between ambient and at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides when accounting for well-established predictors of lipid levels.
This cross-sectional study included 424 industrial workers and 84 financial workers to obtain contrast in noise exposure levels. They provided a serum sample and wore portable dosimeters that every 5-s recorded ambient noise exposure levels during a 24-h period. We extracted measurements obtained during work and calculated the full-shift mean ambient noise level. For 331 workers who kept a diary on the use of a hearing protection device (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the mean full-shift noise exposure level at the ear.
Mean ambient noise level was 79.9 dB (A) [range 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.8 dB (A) [range 55.0-94.2]. Ambient and at-the-ear noise levels were strongly associated with increasing levels of triglycerides, cholesterol-HDL ratio, and decreasing levels of HDL-cholesterol, but only in unadjusted analyses that did not account for HPD use and other risk factors.
No associations between ambient or at-the-ear occupational noise exposure and serum lipid levels were observed. This indicates that a causal pathway between occupational and residential noise exposure and cardiovascular disease does not include alteration of lipid levels.
It has been suggested that a reduced HDL particle size could be another feature of the atherogenic dyslipidemia found among viscerally obese subjects.
To investigate, in women, the relationship between HDL particle size and coronary artery disease (CAD).
Average HDL particle size was measured in a sample of 239 women on whom CAD was assessed by angiography.
Overall, women who had CAD were characterized by a deteriorated fasting metabolic risk profile, which was accompanied by smaller HDL particles compared to women without CAD (80.4???2.2?? vs. 81.5???2.7??, p?
Epidemiological investigation of two randomized groups of men born in 1916-1935 (3908 men in Moscow, 3907 in Leningrad) has shown that in both populations there is a direct relationship between the arterial pressure (AP) and the level of total cholesterol (CS), triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol lipoproteids of high density (CS-LPHD) in blood plasma. A strong correlation between the level of the systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and age has been established. Age variations of the lipid levels were insignificant. The total CS, TG, SAP levels and the diastolic AP increase with the growth of the relative body weight, while the CS-LPHD level decreases. In the group engaged in manual labour the total CS and TG levels are simultaneously lowered and those of CS-LPHD and SAP elevated. There is a direct relationship between the level of CS-LPHD, AP and alcohol intake. Smoking somewhat lowers the level of CS-LPHD and AP. The direct relationship between AP and the level of CS-LPHD remains after complex analysis including all the factors studied.
The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 seems to play a role in atherosclerosis and is elevated in patients with obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the YKL-40 encoding gene, CHI3L1, are associated with inter-individual YKL-40 levels. One study has described an association between a promoter polymorphism of CHI3L1 and levels of low density lipoprotein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of YKL-40 on lipid parameters by determining the association between polymorphisms of CHI3L1, serum YKL-40 and levels of the differentiated lipid profile in a Danish general population.
12 SNPs of CHI3L1 were genotyped, and serum YKL-40 and parameters of the lipid profile were measured in 2,656 Danes. Lipid profile and genotypes were available in another Danish population (n?=?6,784) for replication. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels increased with increasing YKL-40 quartile (both p
Cites: Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13(3):R10921714862
BACKGROUND: High intakes of trans fatty acids (TFA) have been found to exert an undesirable effect on serum lipid profiles, and thus may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the association between TFA intake and serum lipids. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) among 327 men and 299 women (50-65 y). Using a dietary history method, food consumption was assessed and TFA intake was calculated with recent figures on TFA levels of foods, collected in the TRANSFAIR study. RESULTS: Mean (+/-s.d.) TFA intake was 2.40+/-1.53 g/day for men and 1.98+/-1.49 g/day for women (0.87+/-0.48% and 0. 95+/-0.55% of energy, respectively), with the highest consumption in Iceland and the lowest in the Mediterranean countries. No associations were found between total TFA intake and LDL, HDL or LDL/HDL ratio after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Additional adjustment for other fatty acid clusters resulted in a significant inverse trend between total TFA intake and total cholesterol (Ptrend