Simultaneous epidemiologic investigations of representative samplings of the male population, aged from 30 to 59 years, were carried out in Chukot Peninsula and the Buryat ASSR in 1981-1982 and 1985-1986 years. The programme of the study included standard questioning to reveal angina of effort according to the WHO Cardiologic Questionnaire, ECG recording at rest, arterial pressure measuring (twice), anthropometry, biochemical blood assay (the content of total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol). Actual nutrition was studied by the method of "daily reproduction" in 104 residents of Markovskaya tundra (85.3%), in 165 residents of Chukot Peninsula (73.4%) and in 476 residents of the Buryat ASSR (95.2% of the planned number). Differences have been revealed in the characteristics of nutrition and blood lipid content between the native residents of Chukot Peninsula and the Buryat ASSR. Certain relationship has been determined between dyslipoproteinemia incidence and differences in the nutrition of the compared population groups.
Several studies indicate that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a low prevalence of coronary heart disease. An increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is associated with alcohol intake and appears to account for approximately half of alcohol's cardioprotective effect. In addition to changes in the concentration and composition of lipoproteins, alcohol consumption may alter the activities of plasma proteins and enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism: cholesteryl ester transfer protein, phospholipid transfer protein, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, paraoxonase-1 and phospholipases. Alcohol intake also results in modifications of lipoprotein particles: low sialic acid content in apolipoprotein components of lipoprotein particles (e.g., HDL apo E and apo J) and acetaldehyde modification of apolipoproteins. In addition, "abnormal" lipids, phosphatidylethanol, and fatty acid ethyl esters formed in the presence of ethanol are associated with lipoproteins in plasma. The effects of lipoproteins on the vascular wall cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and monocyte/macrophages) may be modulated by ethanol and the alterations further enhanced by modified lipids. The present review discusses the effects of alcohol on lipoproteins in cholesterol transport, as well as the novel effects of lipoproteins on vascular wall cells.
Inhabitants of the northern districts of the Archangelsk Region of the USSR (Nenets and natives) were examined. Hormones of the hypophysis-adrenal cortex-thyroid gland system as well as the metabolites of lipid exchange were measured during the year. Higher mean levels of TSH and T3 were found in Nenets compared to natives. Activation of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system was demonstrated in the winter period compared to the summer one. Metabolites involved in lipid exchange transport in blood remained stable in Nenets, while natives showed dynamics of the lipid exchange metabolites related to the different seasons of the year.
The effect of fish diet on 43 healthy male students was studied. They ate a fish-containing meal for 15 weeks on an average of 3.7 times per week. Twenty-one of them voluntarily restricted their lipid intake while the rest ate normally. Controls continued their usual eating habits (19 students). The meals consisted of Finnish freshwater fish (87%) (vendace, pike, perch and rainbow trout) and brackish water fish (13%) (Baltic herring) that provided about 1 g of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids per day (0.25 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.55 g docosahexaenoic acid). During the diet, omega-3 fatty acids increased in erythrocyte ghosts and platelets at the expense of omega-6 fatty acids. The concentration of serum cholesterol diminished in those fish consumers who lowered their lipid intake. Apolipoprotein A1 and B were lowered in both fish-consuming groups. Triglyceride levels also showed a tendency to decrease. The formation of thromboxane B2 during incubation of whole blood decreased in both fish-consuming groups. The decrease of plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha was not statistically significant, if compared with the controls. The results obtained indicate that a moderate intake of fish-containing meals has some beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and prostanoid metabolism, when coronary heart disease risk factors are considered.
BACKGROUND/AIM: Exercise can positively influence risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms by which exercise reduces atherogenic risk remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise (cardiopulmonary exercise cycle ergometer test) on atherogenic lipids in untreated mild hypertensive patients with or without hypercholesterolemia. This testing allows determination of exercise capacity, peak heart rate, and ventilation per minute (VE), peak oxygen uptake (pVO2) and exercise time (ET). METHODS: The study group included 85 untreated mild hypertensive patients (according to VII Joint National Committee--JNC 7) divided into two subgroups: hypertensive hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive normocholesterolemic. The control grouip included 35 normotensive subjects divided into two subgroups: normotensive hypercholesterolemic and normotensive normocholesterolemic. Lipid profiles to determine were oxidized LDL (OxLDL)--a marker of oxidative stress, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, which were measured at rest and 30 minutes after the acute bout of cardiopulmonary exercise cycle ergometer test. Lipids profiles were measured by enzymatic methods. Oxidized LDL was determined by a commercially available sandwich ELISA (Mercodia AB, Uppsala, Sweden). C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured using chemiluminiscent methods (Immulite-DPC). RESULTS: In our study OxLDL was significantly higher in hypertensive patients with atherogenic lipid profiles in basal condition, compared to the hypertensive patients without atherogenic lipid profiles and controls. There was a significant difference in CRP (p
Hypercholesterolemia has been associated with an increase in vascular tone, mainly because of an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation. This endothelial dysfunction occurs before any definite atherosclerotic lesion is demonstrated. In both animal models and humans the correction of hypercholesterolemia has been associated with hemodynamic improvement. Several controlled trials have demonstrated that long-term treatment with cholesterol-lowering drugs is effective in blocking progression and in some cases in inducing regression of angiographically detected arterial lesions. Arteriographies produce a negative image of the arterial lumen but do not provide sufficient information on vessel wall status. Noninvasive B-mode ultrasound has allowed a direct visualization of the arterial wall in superficial vascular districts, such as the carotid bifurcation. Wall and lesion measures are increasingly used as end points for clinical trials of antiatherosclerotic drugs. In secondary prevention, cholesterol reduction is associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease, although the cholesterol reduction should be at least 8-9% to have an impact on total mortality.
Biochemical composition of the bile and blood serum was investigated in Evenkia and Yakutia residents and immigrants. Blood lipids in the immigrants were much higher while bile lipids lower than in the natives. It is suggested that normolipidemia in the residents may be determined by intensive synthesis of biliary acids and other lipids in the liver and their secretion into the bile. Later, high content of primary cholates (17%) was found in the bile of residents which was not confirmed in the immigrants.