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Abundant Trimethylornithine Lipids and Specific Gene Sequences Are Indicative of Planctomycete Importance at the Oxic/Anoxic Interface in Sphagnum-Dominated Northern Wetlands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273730
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Sep;81(18):6333-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Eli K Moore
Laura Villanueva
Ellen C Hopmans
W Irene C Rijpstra
Anchelique Mets
Svetlana N Dedysh
Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2015 Sep;81(18):6333-44
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acidobacteria - chemistry - isolation & purification
Bacteria - chemistry - genetics - isolation & purification
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Lipids - analysis - chemistry
Oxidation-Reduction
Phylogeny
RNA, Bacterial - genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Russia
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Sphagnopsida - chemistry - genetics - microbiology
Sweden
Wetlands
Abstract
Northern wetlands make up a substantial terrestrial carbon sink and are often dominated by decay-resistant Sphagnum mosses. Recent studies have shown that planctomycetes appear to be involved in degradation of Sphagnum-derived debris. Novel trimethylornithine (TMO) lipids have recently been characterized as abundant lipids in various Sphagnum wetland planctomycete isolates, but their occurrence in the environment has not yet been confirmed. We applied a combined intact polar lipid (IPL) and molecular analysis of peat cores collected from two northern wetlands (Saxnäs Mosse [Sweden] and Obukhovskoye [Russia]) in order to investigate the preferred niche and abundance of TMO-producing planctomycetes. TMOs were present throughout the profiles of Sphagnum bogs, but their concentration peaked at the oxic/anoxic interface, which coincided with a maximum abundance of planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequences detected at the oxic/anoxic interface were affiliated with the Isosphaera group, while sequences present in the anoxic peat layers were related to an uncultured planctomycete group. Pyrosequencing-based analysis identified Planctomycetes as the major bacterial group at the oxic/anoxic interface at the Obukhovskoye peat (54% of total 16S rRNA gene sequence reads), followed by Acidobacteria (19% reads), while in the Saxnäs Mosse peat, Acidobacteria were dominant (46%), and Planctomycetes contributed to 6% of the total reads. The detection of abundant TMO lipids in planctomycetes isolated from peat bogs and the lack of TMO production by cultures of acidobacteria suggest that planctomycetes are the producers of TMOs in peat bogs. The higher accumulation of TMOs at the oxic/anoxic interface and the change in the planctomycete community with depth suggest that these IPLs could be synthesized as a response to changing redox conditions at the oxic/anoxic interface.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26150465 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accumulation and depuration of the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin in the muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86374
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 May;46(5):1834-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Bohne Victoria J Berdikova
Lundebye Anne-Katrine
Hamre Kristin
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Nordnes, Bergen, Norway. victoria.bohne@nifes.no
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 May;46(5):1834-43
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Algorithms
Animal Feed - analysis
Animals
Antioxidants - metabolism
Body Weight - drug effects
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Diet
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ethoxyquin - metabolism
Growth - drug effects
Humans
Lipids - analysis
Mice
Muscle, Skeletal - chemistry - metabolism
Norway
Salmo salar - metabolism
Abstract
The biological fate of the fish feed additive, ethoxyquin (EQ) was examined in the muscle of Atlantic salmon during 12 weeks of feeding followed by a 2 weeks depuration period. Parent EQ (1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline), quinone imine (2,6-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-6-quinolone), de-ethylated EQ (6-hydroxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline) and EQDM (EQ dimer or 1,8'-di(1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-quinoline) were found to be the ubiquitous metabolites of dietary EQ, with EQDM as a main metabolite. A rapid decrease in the level of EQ (2.4 days of half-life) was balanced by an increase in EQDM, giving an unchanged net sum following 2 weeks of depuration. The mandatory 14 days depuration period prior to slaughtering of farmed salmon in Norway was not sufficient for complete elimination of EQ-derived residuals. Post depuration, EQDM accounted for 99% of sum of the two compounds in all treatment groups; possible toxicological effects of EQDM are not known. The individual concentrations of EQ and EQDM and their sum are dependent on EQ level in the feed, consequently, their residual concentrations may be controlled. The theoretical amount of EQ and EQDM consumed in one meal of farmed salmon would be under the recommended ADI, provided that the fish were raised on feed with no more than 150 mg EQ/kg feed, which is the EU maximum limit for EQ in fish feed.
PubMed ID
18329775 View in PubMed
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community divergence within a common host plant in two different soils in a subarctic Aeolian sand area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263039
Source
Mycorrhiza. 2014 Oct;24(7):539-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Gaia Francini
Minna Männistö
Vilhelmiina Alaoja
Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
Source
Mycorrhiza. 2014 Oct;24(7):539-50
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biota
Cluster analysis
DNA, Fungal - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Plant - chemistry - genetics
DNA, Ribosomal - chemistry - genetics
Lipids - analysis
Molecular Sequence Data
Mycelium - chemistry
Mycorrhizae - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Phylogeny
Plant Roots - microbiology
Poaceae - microbiology
RNA, Ribosomal, 18S - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Soil Microbiology
Abstract
There is rising awareness that different arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have different autoecology and occupy different soil niches and that the benefits they provide to the host plant are dependent on plant-AM fungus combination. However, the role and community composition of AM fungi in succession are not well known and the northern latitudes remain poorly investigated ecosystems. We studied AM fungal communities in the roots of the grass Deschampsia flexuosa in two different, closely located, successional stages in a northern Aeolian sand area. The AM fungal taxa richness in planta was estimated by cloning and sequencing small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. AM colonization, shoot d (13)C signature, and %N and %C were measured. Soil microbial community structure and AM fungal mycelium abundance were estimated using phospholipid (PLFA) and neutral lipid (NLFA) analyses. The two successional stages were characterized by distinct plant, microbial, and fungal communities. AM fungal species richness was very low in both the early and late successional stages. AM frequency in D. flexuosa roots was higher in the early successional stage than in the late one. The AM fungal taxa retrieved belonged to the genera generally adapted to Arctic or extreme environments. AM fungi seemed to be important in the early stage of the succession, suggesting that AM fungi may help plants to better cope with the harsh environmental conditions, especially in an early successional stage with more extreme environmental fluctuations.
PubMed ID
24687606 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Biochemiluminescence of tissue lipids under hormonal cancerogenesis]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature27961
Source
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1975 Jul-Aug;47(4):510-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
E P Sydoryk
E A Bahley
T M Yrukivska
M J Danko
Source
Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1975 Jul-Aug;47(4):510-3
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
English Abstract
Estrogens - secretion
Female
Lipids - analysis
Luminescence
Neoplasms, Experimental - metabolism
Ovarian Neoplasms - analysis - chemically induced
Rats
Abstract
The chemiluminescence of ovarian tumours tissue lipids was studied at various stages of hormonal cancerogenesis. With the growth of the ovarian tumour the biochimiluminescence intensity decreases and becomes minimal in the period of granulous cell formations. The inverse relationship is observed when studying biochimiluminescence of common liver lipids in tumour-bearing animals, which is explained by migration of bioantioxidants from the liver to the tumour. The changes in the biochimiluminescence intensity at various stages of hormonal cancerogenesis is connected with the processes of tumour cells proliferation.
PubMed ID
1209778 View in PubMed
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Blue-green color and composition of Stejneger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) milk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4632
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1984;79(3):349-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
1984
Author
D E Ullrey
C C Schwartz
P A Whetter
T. Rajeshwar Rao
J R Euber
S G Cheng
J R Brunner
Source
Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1984;79(3):349-52
Date
1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Calcium - analysis
Cetacea - metabolism
Color
Comparative Study
Female
Lactation
Lipids - analysis
Milk - analysis
Milk Proteins - analysis
Phosphates - analysis
Potassium - analysis
Pregnancy
Sodium - analysis
Species Specificity
Whales - metabolism
Abstract
Two hundred ml of milk were obtained from a lactating Stejneger's beaked whale stranded at Ninilchik, Alaska on 21 Oct, 1980. Total solids (41%) were similar to values reported for sperm and belukha whales, while fat (17%) was half as great and crude protein (17%) was 2-4 times greater than in milk of these species. Lactose was not detected. Calcium (0.22%) was greater than reported for pigmy sperm whales but less than for blue whales. Phosphorus (0.07%) was less than for any of the above species. Sodium and potassium concentrations were 0.13% and 0.11%, respectively. Values (microgram/g) for other elements analyzed (magnesium, 42; iron, 35; copper, 2.6; zinc, 1.5; manganese, 0.3; selenium, 0.36) have not been reported for whale milk. Based on SDS-gel electropherograms, this whale milk did not contain a whey protein corresponding to cattle milk alpha-lactalbumin. A blue-green pigment in the milk was identified as biliverdin.
PubMed ID
6509923 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Changes in lipid metabolism in children with bronchiectasis]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature44515
Source
Pediatr Akus Ginekol. 1968 Jul-Aug;4:26-7
Publication Type
Article

Characterization of protein fractions from immature Alaska walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) roe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84839
Source
J Food Sci. 2007 Jun;72(5):S338-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Bechtel P J
Chantarachoti J.
Oliveira A C M
Sathivel S.
Author Affiliation
Dept. of USDA-ARS-Pacific West Area, Subarctic Agricultural Research Unit, Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, 245 O'Neill Bldg., Fairbanks, AK 99775-7220, USA. bechtel@sfos.uaf.edu
Source
J Food Sci. 2007 Jun;72(5):S338-43
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adsorption
Alaska
Amino Acids - analysis
Animals
Centrifugation
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Fish Proteins - analysis - standards
Freeze Drying
Gadiformes - physiology
Lipids - analysis
Molecular Weight
Nutritive Value
Powders - chemistry
Sexual Maturation - physiology
Solubility
Abstract
There are good markets for mature pollock roe; however, immature pollock roe is underutilized. The physical and nutritional properties of immature pollock roe (IPR) have not been reported, which limits its potential use as a food ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and nutritional properties of immature pollock roe and soluble and insoluble protein powders made from the immature roe. IPR samples were obtained during the spring pollock harvest from a seafood processing plant in Kodiak, Alaska. Soluble (SP) and insoluble protein (IP) fractions were produced by heating IPR, separating by centrifugation and freeze drying. The protein contents of freeze-dried IPR, SP, and IP were 81.7%, 63.2%, and 83.0%, respectively. The amino acid contents of IPR and IP were similar except for isoleucine and valine. However, the amino acid contents of IPR and IP were different from values for SP. Lipid contents of IPR, SP, and IP were 9.2%, 9.3%, and 11.1%, respectively. Palmitic acid (C16:0; 21.2%), DHA (C22:6omega3; 21.2%), and EPA (C20:5omega3; 19.0%) were the 3 most abundant fatty acids in fresh IPR. Fat adsorption capacity value for SP was significantly higher than IPR and IP (P
PubMed ID
17995752 View in PubMed
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Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267633
Source
J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Dec;94(15):3281-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Hanne K Maehre
Marian K Malde
Karl-Erik Eilertsen
Edel O Elvevoll
Source
J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Dec;94(15):3281-90
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amino Acids - analysis
Animal Feed
Animals
Arsenic - analysis
Cereals
Fatty Acids - analysis
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - analysis
Food
Fucus - chemistry
Humans
Iodine - analysis
Laminaria - chemistry
Lipids - analysis
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Minerals - analysis
Norway
Proteins - analysis
Rhodophyta - chemistry
Seaweed - chemistry
Ulva - chemistry
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed.
Proteins ranged from 34 to 123?g?kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58?g?kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern.
In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product.
PubMed ID
24700148 View in PubMed
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Chemical composition of milk from a herd of Norwegian goats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65543
Source
J Dairy Res. 1986 May;53(2):211-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1986
Author
J. Brendehaug
R K Abrahamsen
Source
J Dairy Res. 1986 May;53(2):211-21
Date
May-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Feed
Animals
Citrates - analysis
Comparative Study
Fatty Acids - analysis
Female
Goats
Humans
Lactation
Lipids - analysis
Milk - analysis
Milk Proteins - analysis
Nitrogen - analysis
Norway
Pregnancy
Salts - analysis
Taste
Triglycerides - analysis
Abstract
The chemical composition of Norwegian bulk collected goats' milk from the University herd was analysed during one lactation period (30 weeks, 20 samples during 1983). There was considerable variation in chemical composition during the year. Fat content decreased over the first 4 months of lactation and increased during the mountain pasture period. Protein concentration decreased during the first 4 months, and then increased until the end of lactation. Lactose concentration decreased throughout lactation. Casein nitrogen (casein N) was highest at mid lactation and lowest at the beginning and end of lactation. beta-Lactoglobulin N showed the opposite trend. Citrate content showed a significantly quadratic decrease and total ash content an increase with advancing lactation. Mutual significant correlations between total P, K, Na, Ca and Mg were calculated, and all increased throughout lactation. There was significant positive correlation between concentrations of individual medium-chain fatty acids and stage of lactation. They remained more or less constant during the first part of the lactation, decreased to minima when the goats were on pasture, and increased during the last phase of lactation. Concentration of C16 fatty acid was negatively correlated with C18 and C18:1. Goat flavour intensity score and quality flavour score were highest at mid lactation, and positively correlated with the acid degree value.
PubMed ID
3755147 View in PubMed
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[Clinical symptoms of the course of Niemann-Pick disease]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61240
Source
Pediatr Akus Ginekol. 1967 Jan-Feb;1:33-4
Publication Type
Article

89 records – page 1 of 9.