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1H-MRS Measured Ectopic Fat in Liver and Muscle in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273208
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cilius Esmann Fonvig
Elizaveta Chabanova
Ehm Astrid Andersson
Johanne Dam Ohrt
Oluf Pedersen
Torben Hansen
Henrik S Thomsen
Jens-Christian Holm
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anthropometry
Blood Glucose - analysis
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dyslipidemias - blood
Fatty Liver - pathology
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance
Intra-Abdominal Fat - pathology
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Liver - metabolism - pathology
Male
Muscles - pathology
Overweight
Pediatric Obesity - blood - pathology
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Puberty
Sex Factors
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Abstract
This cross sectional study aims to investigate the associations between ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and biochemical measures, estimates of insulin resistance, anthropometry, and blood pressure in lean and overweight/obese children.
Fasting plasma glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin, and expressions of insulin resistance, anthropometry, blood pressure, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver and muscle fat were obtained in 327 Danish children and adolescents aged 8-18 years.
In 287 overweight/obese children, the prevalences of hepatic and muscular steatosis were 31% and 68%, respectively, whereas the prevalences in 40 lean children were 3% and 10%, respectively. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index z-score (BMI SDS), and pubertal development showed that the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 4.2 (95%CI: [1.8; 10.2], p = 0.0009) when hepatic steatosis was present. Comparing the simultaneous presence of hepatic and muscular steatosis with no presence of steatosis, the OR of exhibiting dyslipidemia was 5.8 (95%CI: [2.0; 18.6], p = 0.002). No significant associations between muscle fat and dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, or blood pressure were observed. Liver and muscle fat, adjusted for age, sex, BMI SDS, and pubertal development, associated to BMI SDS and glycosylated hemoglobin, while only liver fat associated to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and intramyocellular lipid associated inversely to high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Hepatic steatosis is associated with dyslipidemia and liver and muscle fat depositions are linked to obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, especially glycosylated hemoglobin, in children and adolescents, which suggest an increased cardiovascular disease risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26252778 View in PubMed
Less detail

1H-NMR metabolomic biomarkers of poor outcome after hemorrhagic shock are absent in hibernators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267428
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107493
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Lori K Bogren
Carl J Murphy
Erin L Johnston
Neeraj Sinha
Natalie J Serkova
Kelly L Drew
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107493
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biological Markers - blood
Hibernation
Lipids - blood
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Male
Metabolome
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Reperfusion Injury - blood - prevention & control
Sciuridae
Shock, Hemorrhagic - blood - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following trauma is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 40. During HS the body undergoes systemic warm ischemia followed by reperfusion during medical intervention. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) results in a disruption of cellular metabolic processes that ultimately lead to tissue and organ dysfunction or failure. Resistance to I/R injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to identify circulating metabolites in the rat as biomarkers for metabolic alterations associated with poor outcome after HS. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), a hibernating species that resists I/R injury independent of decreased body temperature (warm I/R), was used as a negative control.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats and AGS were subject to HS by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg and maintaining the low MAP for 20 min before reperfusing with Ringers. The animals' temperature was maintained at 37 ? 0.5 ?C for the duration of the experiment. Plasma samples were taken immediately before hemorrhage and three hours after reperfusion. Hydrophilic and lipid metabolites from plasma were then analyzed via 1H-NMR from unprocessed plasma and lipid extracts, respectively. Rats, susceptible to I/R injury, had a qualitative shift in their hydrophilic metabolic fingerprint including differential activation of glucose and anaerobic metabolism and had alterations in several metabolites during I/R indicative of metabolic adjustments and organ damage. In contrast, I/R injury resistant AGS, regardless of season or body temperature, maintained a stable metabolic homeostasis revealed by a qualitative 1H-NMR metabolic profile with few changes in quantified metabolites during HS-induced global I/R.
An increase in circulating metabolites indicative of anaerobic metabolism and activation of glycolytic pathways is associated with poor prognosis after HS in rats. These same biomarkers are absent in AGS after HS with warm I/R.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25211248 View in PubMed
Less detail

A 1-year randomized study to evaluate the effects of a dose reduction in oral contraceptives on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism: 20 microg ethinyl estradiol combined with 100 microg levonorgestrel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176202
Source
Contraception. 2005 Feb;71(2):111-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Sven O Skouby
Jan Endrikat
Bernd Düsterberg
Werner Schmidt
Christoph Gerlinger
Jens Wessel
Henri Goldstein
Joergen Jespersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK 2000 Copenhagen F, Denmark. sven.skouby@fh.hosp.dk
Source
Contraception. 2005 Feb;71(2):111-7
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
C-Peptide - blood
Carbohydrate Metabolism - drug effects
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Contraceptive Agents, Female - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ethinyl Estradiol - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified - blood
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Levonorgestrel - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Lipid Metabolism - drug effects
Prospective Studies
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
In an open-label, randomized study, a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg EE and 100 microg LNG (20 EE/100 LNG) was compared with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 microg LNG (30 EE/150 LNG). One-year data from 48 volunteers were obtained.
We found a decrease of HDL2 cholesterol and increases of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides in both treatment groups from baseline to the 13th treatment cycle. Although for four of six variables, the changes in the 20 EE group were lower compared with the 30 EE group, none of the differences between the two treatments were statistically significant. The median values for the fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids slightly increased or remained unchanged while the fasting glucose levels slightly decreased after 13 treatment cycles. While the glucose area under the curve (AUC) (0-3 h) was similar in both groups during the OGTT, the insulin AUC(0-3 h) was less increased in the 20 EE/100 LNG group compared with the 30 EE/150 LNG group. None of the differences between the treatment groups for any of the carbohydrate metabolism variables were statistically significant at any time point. Both study treatments were safe and well tolerated by the volunteers.
Similar effects on the lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found for both preparations. The balanced one-third EE dose reduction in this new oral contraceptive caused slightly lower, but insignificant, changes in the lipid and carbohydrate variables compared with the reference treatment.
PubMed ID
15707560 View in PubMed
Less detail

2-hydroxypropyl-Ã?-cyclodextrin in eye drops: Evaluation in human patients

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102117
Source
Pages 55-57 in G. Pétursdóttir et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 93. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 20-25, 1993. Arctic Medical Research. 1994;53(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
. This allows the use of hydrophobic drugs and lipids in aqueous eye drops containing cyclodextrin. This study examines the possible toxicity of an eye drop preparation that contains 2-hydroxypropyl-8-cyclodextrin, and its possible efficacy as a lubricant in patients with dry eyes. Artificial tear
  1 document  
Author
Thórisdóttir, S
Stefánsson, E
Loftsson, Th.
Guðmundsson, �G
Friðriksdóttir, H
Guðmundsson, �,
Sigthórsson, Th
Thorisdottir, S
Stefansson, E
Guomundsson, O.G.
Frioriksdottir, H
Guomundsson, O
Sigthorsson, Th
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Iceland, Reykjavik
Department of Pharmacy, University of Iceland, Reykjavik
Landakot Hospital Dept. of Ophthalmology, Reykjavik, Iceland
Lyfjaverslun ríkisins, Reykjavik, Iceland
Source
Pages 55-57 in G. Pétursdóttir et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 93. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Reykjavík, Iceland, June 20-25, 1993. Arctic Medical Research. 1994;53(Suppl.2)
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
2-hydroxypropyl-Ã?-cyclodextrin
aqueous eye drops
artificial tear solution
cyclodextrin
dry eyes
hydrophobic drugs
Lipids
ophthalmic formulation
Solubility
toxicity
Abstract
Cyclodextrins facilitate the solubility of hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solutions. This allows the use of hydrophobic drugs and lipids in aqueous eye drops containing cyclodextrin. This study examines the possible toxicity of an eye drop preparation that contains 2-hydroxypropyl-Ã?-cyclodextrin and its possible efficacy as a lubricant in patients with dry eyes. Artificial tear solution that contains a lipid (cholesterol), an oligosaccharide (2-hydroxypropyl-Ã?-cyclodextrin) and saline was produced to mimic the natural tear film of the eye. The toxicity and usefulness of this drug was studied in rabbits and humans. The results demonstrate that the cyclodextrin-cholesterol artificial tear solution is well tolerated by the rabbit and human eye and is not toxic. It had therapeutic value in people with mild dryness of eyes, while those with severe dryness found no beneficial effect.
Documents
Less detail

[3',5'-cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the combined treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature14188
Source
Lik Sprava. 1998 Aug;(6):34-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
O I Bakaliuk
M I Shved
M V Hrebenyk
Source
Lik Sprava. 1998 Aug;(6):34-7
Date
Aug-1998
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
3',5'-Cyclic-Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase - antagonists & inhibitors
Antirheumatic Agents - therapeutic use
Arthritis, Rheumatoid - drug therapy - immunology - metabolism
Combined Modality Therapy
Comparative Study
Drug Evaluation
English Abstract
Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase - blood - drug effects
Humans
Immunity, Cellular - drug effects
Immunity, Natural - drug effects
Lipid Peroxidation - drug effects
Papaverine - therapeutic use
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Prospidium - therapeutic use
Abstract
A study was made of clinical effectiveness and mechanism of action of the inhibitor of the specific 3',5'-cAMP phosphodiesterase papaverine in a therapeutic complex of measures designed to treat RA patients involving an immunodepressive preparation free from any cytopenic effect prospidin as a basic mediator. It has been shown that the papaverine antiarthritic action is associated with its positive effects on the unspecific component of the immune-complex inflammation, viz. processes of lipid peroxidation, activity of the antioxidant system of defence as well as on the vascular tone and microcirculation. All this improves tissue metabolism, and in this way enhances efficiency of RA basic therapy.
PubMed ID
9844866 View in PubMed
Less detail

The -238 and -308 G-->A polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene promoter are not associated with features of the insulin resistance syndrome or altered birth weight in Danish Caucasians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47878
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr;85(4):1731-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2000
Author
S K Rasmussen
S A Urhammer
J N Jensen
T. Hansen
K. Borch-Johnsen
O. Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Center and Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark.
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Apr;85(4):1731-4
Date
Apr-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth Weight - genetics
Body constitution
Body mass index
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Female
Genotype
Humans
Insulin - blood
Insulin Resistance - genetics
Lipids - blood
Male
Obesity - genetics
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Promoter Regions (Genetics)
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha - genetics
Abstract
Recently, two G-->A polymorphisms at positions -308 and -238, in the promoter of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene, have been identified. These variants have, in different ethnic groups, been linked to estimates of insulin resistance and obesity. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether these genetic variants of TNF-alpha were associated with features of the insulin resistance syndrome or alterations in birth weight in two Danish study populations comprising 380 unrelated young healthy subjects and 249 glucose-tolerant relatives of type 2 diabetic patients, respectively. All study participants underwent an iv glucose tolerance test with the addition of tolbutamide after 20 min. In addition, a number of biochemical and anthropometric measures were performed on each subject. The subjects were genotyped for the polymorphisms by applying PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Neither of the variants was related to altered insulin sensitivity index or other features of the insulin resistance syndrome (body mass index, waist to hip ratio, fat mass, fasting serum lipids or fasting serum insulin or C-peptide). Birth weight and the ponderal index were also not associated with the polymorphisms. In conclusion, although the study was carried out on sufficiently large study samples, the study does not support a major role of the -308 or -238 substitutions of the TNF-alpha gene in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance or altered birth weight among Danish Caucasian subjects.
PubMed ID
10770222 View in PubMed
Less detail

The -629C>A polymorphism in the CETP gene does not explain the association of TaqIB polymorphism with risk and age of myocardial infarction in Icelandic men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53840
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2001 Nov;159(1):187-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
G. Eiriksdottir
M K Bolla
B. Thorsson
G. Sigurdsson
S E Humphries
V. Gudnason
Author Affiliation
Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Hjartavernd, Icelandic Heart Association, Lagmuli 9, 108, Reykjavik, Iceland. gudny@hjarta.is
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2001 Nov;159(1):187-92
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Carrier Proteins - genetics
Gene Frequency
Genotype
Glycoproteins
Homozygote
Humans
Iceland
Linkage Disequilibrium
Lipids - blood
Lipoproteins, HDL Cholesterol - blood
Male
Myocardial Infarction - blood - genetics
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Genetic
Promoter Regions (Genetics) - genetics
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine whether the well-established effect of the common TaqIB polymorphism in intron 1 of the gene for cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), could be explained by the recently identified -629C>A functional polymorphism in the promoter. Non-fatal MI cases (388 male) and a control group of 794 healthy men were recruited from the 30 year long prospective Reykjavik Study. In the healthy men the frequency of the TaqIB B2 allele was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.44-0.50) and there was a strong allelic association with the -629A allele (D=-0.21, P
PubMed ID
11689220 View in PubMed
Less detail

A1C variability predicts incident cardiovascular events, microalbuminuria, and overt diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149324
Source
Diabetes. 2009 Nov;58(11):2649-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Johan Wadén
Carol Forsblom
Lena M Thorn
Daniel Gordin
Markku Saraheimo
Per-Henrik Groop
Author Affiliation
Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland. per-henrik.groop@helsinki.fi
Source
Diabetes. 2009 Nov;58(11):2649-55
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Albuminuria - epidemiology
Autoanalysis - methods
Biological Markers - blood
Blood pressure
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - blood
Diabetic Angiopathies - epidemiology - mortality
Diabetic Nephropathies - epidemiology - mortality
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Glucose - metabolism
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated - metabolism
Humans
Kidney Failure, Chronic - epidemiology
Lipids - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Selection
Predictive value of tests
Risk factors
Survival Rate
Abstract
Recent data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) indicated that A1C variability is associated with the risk of diabetes microvascular complications. However, these results might have been influenced by the interventional study design. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal associations between A1C variability and diabetes complications in patients with type 1 diabetes in the observational Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study.
A total of 2,107 patients in the FinnDiane Study had complete data on renal status and serial measurements of A1C from baseline to follow-up (median 5.7 years), and 1,845 patients had similar data on cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Intrapersonal SD of serially measured A1C was considered a measure of variability.
During follow-up, 10.2% progressed to a higher albuminuria level or to end-stage renal disease, whereas 8.6% had a CVD event. The SD of serial A1C was 1.01 versus 0.75 (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
19651819 View in PubMed
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Aberrations in plasma phospholipid fatty acids in lung cancer patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128904
Source
Lipids. 2012 Apr;47(4):363-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Rachel A Murphy
Taylor F Bureyko
Marina Mourtzakis
Quincy S Chu
M Thomas Clandinin
Tony Reiman
Vera C Mazurak
Author Affiliation
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, 4-126A Li Ka Shing Centre, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
Source
Lipids. 2012 Apr;47(4):363-9
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - drug therapy - metabolism - mortality
Aged
Antineoplastic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Body mass index
Canada
Fatty Acids - analysis
Female
Humans
Lipid Metabolism - drug effects
Longitudinal Studies
Lung Neoplasms - drug therapy - metabolism - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Staging
Phospholipids - analysis
Survival Rate
Weight Loss
Abstract
Abnormalities in lipid metabolism have been frequently observed in cancer and are associated with a poor prognosis. However, a detailed, longitudinal characterization of fatty acid status is lacking. This study aimed to assess plasma phospholipid fatty acids before chemotherapy, immediately after and 1 month following chemotherapy in a group of 50 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer and explore factors which may contribute to aberrations in fatty acids. Their mean ± SD characteristics: age 64 ± 8.5 years, 75% advanced stage disease, body mass index 27.0 ± 5.4 kg/m², 6 month weight loss -4.6 ± 6.1%. Compared to patients with early stage disease, patients with advanced disease had abnormal fatty acid profiles including significantly lower (P
PubMed ID
22160451 View in PubMed
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Absence of association between the INSIG2 gene polymorphism (rs7566605) and obesity in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95295
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jul;17(7):1453-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2009
Author
Vimaleswaran Karani S
Franks Paul W
Brage Soren
Sardinha Luis B
Andersen Lars B
Wareham Nicholas J
Ekelund Ulf
Loos Ruth J F
Author Affiliation
MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK.
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jul;17(7):1453-7
Date
Jul-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Estonia
Europe
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins - genetics
Lipids - blood
Male
Membrane Proteins - genetics
Obesity - blood - ethnology - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Waist Circumference - genetics
Abstract
The first genome-wide association study for BMI identified a polymorphism, rs7566605, 10 kb upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) transcription start site, as the most significantly associated variant in children and adults. Subsequent studies, however, showed inconsistent association of this polymorphism with obesity traits. This polymorphism has been hypothesized to alter INSIG2 expression leading to inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Hence, we investigated the association of the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity- and lipid-related traits in Danish and Estonian children (930 boys and 1,073 girls) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS), a school-based, cross-sectional study of pre- and early pubertal children. The association between the polymorphism and obesity traits was tested using additive and recessive models adjusted for age, age-group, gender, maturity and country. Interactions were tested by including the interaction terms in the model. Despite having sufficient power (98%) to detect the previously reported effect size for association with BMI, we did not find significant effects of rs7566605 on BMI (additive, P = 0.68; recessive, P = 0.24). Accordingly, the polymorphism was not associated with overweight (P = 0.87) or obesity (P = 0.34). We also did not find association with waist circumference (WC), sum of four skinfolds, or with total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein. There were no gender-specific (P = 0.55), age-group-specific (P = 0.63) or country-specific (P = 0.56) effects. There was also no evidence of interaction between genotype and physical activity (P = 0.95). Despite an adequately powered study, our findings suggest that rs7566605 is not associated with obesity-related traits and lipids in the EYHS.
PubMed ID
19197262 View in PubMed
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