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1,3-Butadiene and leukemia among synthetic rubber industry workers: exposure-response relationships.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166384
Source
Chem Biol Interact. 2007 Mar 20;166(1-3):15-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-20-2007
Author
Hong Cheng
Nalini Sathiakumar
John Graff
Robert Matthews
Elizabeth Delzell
Author Affiliation
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Ryals School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Birmingham, AL, USA. hcheng@ms.soph.uab.edu
Source
Chem Biol Interact. 2007 Mar 20;166(1-3):15-24
Date
Mar-20-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Butadienes - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinogens - chemical synthesis - chemistry - toxicity
Chemical Industry - manpower - statistics & numerical data
Confidence Intervals
Dimethyldithiocarbamate - adverse effects
Humans
Leukemia, Lymphoid - chemically induced - epidemiology
Leukemia, Myeloid - chemically induced - epidemiology
Likelihood Functions
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Proportional Hazards Models
Rubber - adverse effects - chemical synthesis - chemistry
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Previous research updated the mortality experience of North American synthetic rubber industry workers during the period 1944-1998, determined if leukemia and other cancers were associated with several employment factors and carried out Poisson regression analysis to examine exposure-response associations between estimated exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) or other chemicals and cancer. The present study used Cox regression procedures to examine further the exposure-response relationship between several unlagged and lagged, continuous, time-dependent BD exposure indices (BD parts per million (ppm)-years, the total number of exposures to BD concentrations >100 ppm ("peaks") and average intensity of BD) and leukemia, lymphoid neoplasms and myeloid neoplasms. All three BD exposure indices were associated positively with leukemia. Using continuous, untransformed BD ppm-years the regression coefficient (beta) from an analysis that controlled only for age was 2.9 x 10(-4) (p
PubMed ID
17123495 View in PubMed
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Aboriginal physician use in Canada: location, orientation and identity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209126
Source
Health Econ. 1997 Mar-Apr;6(2):197-207
Publication Type
Article
Author
K B Newbold
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA. newbold@uiuc.edu
Source
Health Econ. 1997 Mar-Apr;6(2):197-207
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health Care Surveys
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American
Likelihood Functions
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Personal Health Services - utilization
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The main objectives of this paper are to compare Aboriginal and Canadian health status and physician use and to identify the factors associated with the use of physician services. Data are drawn from the 1991 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the 1991 General Social Survey (GSS), which are weighted random samples of the Aboriginal and total Canadian populations, respectively. The results demonstrate that Aboriginals were much less likely to use physician services, even though Aboriginals rank their health similarly to the total Canadian population. Location becomes an important aspect of both physician use and health status, with Aboriginals residing on-reserve generally having lower levels of self-assessed health and less likely to have seen a physician. While Aboriginals with the poorest health status were more likely to have seen a physician, other factors including education were found to be barriers to use of health care. Aboriginal identity and cultural orientation provided mixed results.
PubMed ID
9158971 View in PubMed
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Access and utilization: a continuum of health service environments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211173
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1996 Sep;43(6):975-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1996
Author
M W Rosenberg
N T Hanlon
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 1996 Sep;43(6):975-83
Date
Sep-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cluster analysis
Female
Health Facility Environment - standards
Health Services - utilization
Health Services Accessibility - standards
Health Services Research
Humans
Income
Likelihood Functions
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
Birch and Abelson [1] argue that non-income based barriers might explain differences in utilization of health services within and between income groups. Databases which contain utilization data rarely allow for the modelling of geographic variation. In the Ontario Health Survey (OHS), individual observations are georeferenced at the Public Health Unit (PHU) scale, but PHUs cannot easily be used because of the large coefficients of variation. To overcome this problem, a cluster analysis is performed to create a service environment variable, which reflects differences in service availability, population size and rurality. Utilization of health services is then modelled as a logistic regression equation where the independent variables are age, sex, service environment and income to test the Birch and Abelson argument. This argument is then extended by controlling for age, health and income status. Based on the modelling results, the importance of geography to access and utilization is assessed.
PubMed ID
8888467 View in PubMed
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Acute middle ear infection in small children: a Bayesian analysis using multiple time scales.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33815
Source
Lifetime Data Anal. 1998;4(2):121-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
A. Andreev
E. Arjas
Author Affiliation
Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Lifetime Data Anal. 1998;4(2):121-37
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Algorithms
Bayes Theorem
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Likelihood Functions
Male
Markov Chains
Mathematical Computing
Models, Statistical
Otitis Media - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
The study is based on a sample of 965 children living in Oulu region (Finland), who were monitored for acute middle ear infections from birth to the age of two years. We introduce a nonparametrically defined intensity model for ear infections, which involves both fixed and time dependent covariates, such as calendar time, current age, length of breast-feeding time until present, or current type of day care. Unmeasured heterogeneity, which manifests itself in frequent infections in some children and rare in others and which cannot be explained in terms of the known covariates, is modelled by using individual frailty parameters. A Bayesian approach is proposed to solve the inferential problem. The numerical work is carried out by Monte Carlo integration (Metropolis-Hastings algorithm).
PubMed ID
9658771 View in PubMed
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Adapting the Charlson Comorbidity Index for use in patients with ESRD.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184742
Source
Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Jul;42(1):125-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Brenda R Hemmelgarn
Braden J Manns
Hude Quan
William A Ghali
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. bhemmelg@ucalgary.ca
Source
Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Jul;42(1):125-32
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alberta - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Diagnosis-Related Groups
Female
Humans
Kidney Failure, Chronic - epidemiology - therapy
Life tables
Likelihood Functions
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Peritoneal dialysis
Proportional Hazards Models
Renal Dialysis
Risk Adjustment
Severity of Illness Index
Survival Analysis
Abstract
Accurate prediction of survival for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and multiple comorbid conditions is difficult. In nondialysis patients, the Charlson Comorbidity Index has been used to adjust for comorbidity. The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the Charlson index in incident dialysis patients and modify the index for use specifically in this patient population.
Subjects included all incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients starting dialysis therapy between July 1, 1999, and November 30, 2000. These 237 patients formed a cohort from which new integer weights for Charlson comorbidities were derived using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Performance of the original Charlson index and the new ESRD comorbidity index were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, change in likelihood ratio, and the c statistic.
After multivariate analysis and conversion of hazard ratios to index weights, only 6 of the original 18 Charlson variables were assigned the same weight and 6 variables were assigned a weight higher than in the original Charlson index. Using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, we found that both the original Charlson index and the new ESRD comorbidity index were associated with and able to describe a wide range of survival. However, the new study-specific index had better validated performance, indicated by a greater change in the likelihood ratio test and higher c statistic.
This study indicates that the original Charlson index is a valid tool to assess comorbidity and predict survival in patients with ESRD. However, our modified ESRD comorbidity index had slightly better performance characteristics in this population.
PubMed ID
12830464 View in PubMed
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Additive and non-additive genetic architecture of two different-sized populations of Scabiosa canescens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46070
Source
Heredity. 2001 Jun;86(Pt 6):648-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
P. Waldmann
Author Affiliation
Department of Systematic Botany, University of Lund, Ostra Vallgatan 14-20, SE-22361, Lund, Sweden. Patrick.Waldmann@oulu.fi
Source
Heredity. 2001 Jun;86(Pt 6):648-57
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Angiosperms - genetics
Crosses, Genetic
Gene Frequency
Genes, Dominant - genetics
Genetics, Population
Genotype
Likelihood Functions
North Carolina
Phenotype
Quantitative Trait, Heritable
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Selection (Genetics)
Abstract
Future adaptation to changes in the environment depends on the existence of additive genetic variances within populations. Recently, considerable attention has also been given to the non-additive component, which plays an important role in inbreeding depression and bottleneck situations. In this study, I used data from a North Carolina II crossing experiment, analysed with restricted maximum-likelihood methods, to estimate the additive and dominance genetic (co)variances for eight quantitative characters in two different-sized populations of Scabiosa canescens, a rare and threatened plant in Sweden. There was no evidence for genetic erosion in the small Hällestad population ( approximately 25 individuals) relative to the large Ahus population ( approximately 5000 individuals). In fact, slightly higher heritabilities were found in the Hällestad population. The additive genetic variance was statistically significant for all traits in both populations, but only a few additive covariances reached significance. The Hällestad population also had higher mean levels and more traits with significant dominance variance than the Ahus population. The variance attributable to maternal effects was too low to be considered significant. There was only a weak correspondence between heritabilities for each trait in the present study and previous estimates based on open-pollinated families of the same populations, but the mean heritability (over characters) was consistent between the studies.
PubMed ID
11595045 View in PubMed
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Adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers in a population-based study of risk of contralateral breast cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100644
Source
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Sep;123(2):491-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Kerryn W Reding
Jonine L Bernstein
Bryan M Langholz
Leslie Bernstein
Robert W Haile
Colin B Begg
Charles F Lynch
Patrick Concannon
Ake Borg
Sharon N Teraoka
Therese Törngren
Anh Diep
Shanyan Xue
Lisbeth Bertelsen
Xiaolin Liang
Anne S Reiner
Marinela Capanu
Kathleen E Malone
Author Affiliation
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N., Mail Stop M4-B874, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA. kreding@u.washington.edu
Source
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Sep;123(2):491-8
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols - therapeutic use
BRCA1 Protein - genetics
BRCA2 Protein - genetics
Breast Neoplasms - drug therapy - genetics - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
DNA Mutational Analysis
Denmark
Female
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Mutation
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local - genetics - prevention & control
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
SEER Program
Tamoxifen - administration & dosage
Treatment Outcome
United States
Young Adult
Abstract
Given the greatly elevated risks of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) observed in breast cancer patients who carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, it is critical to determine the effectiveness of standard adjuvant therapies in preventing CBC in mutation carriers. The WECARE study is a matched, case-control study of 708 women with CBC as cases and 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) as controls, including 181 BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. Interviews and medical record reviews provided detailed information on risk factors and breast cancer therapy. All study participants were screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) to detect genetic variants in the coding and flanking regions of the genes. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the risk of CBC associated with chemotherapy and tamoxifen in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. Chemotherapy was associated with lower CBC risk both in non-carriers (RR = 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.7]) and carriers (RR = 0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-1.0]; P value = 0.04). Tamoxifen was associated with a reduced CBC risk in non-carriers (RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.6-1.0]; P value = 0.03). We observed a similar but non-significant reduction associated with tamoxifen in mutation carriers (RR = 0.7 [95% CI: 0.3-1.8]). The tests of heterogeneity comparing carriers to non-carriers did not provide evidence for a difference in the associations with chemotherapy (P value = 0.51) nor with tamoxifen (P value = 0.15). Overall, we did not observe a difference in the relative risk reduction associated with adjuvant treatment between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. However, given the higher absolute CBC risk in mutation carriers, the potentially greater impact of adjuvant therapy in reducing CBC risk among mutation carriers should be considered when developing treatment plans for these patients.
PubMed ID
20135344 View in PubMed
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Admission to university engineering programs in Sweden: a multipurpose approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178454
Source
Psychol Rep. 2004 Jun;94(3 Pt 2):1125-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
Simon Wolming
Per-Erik Lyrén
Author Affiliation
Department of Educational Measurement, Umeå University, Sweden. Simon.Wolming@edmeas.umu.se
Source
Psychol Rep. 2004 Jun;94(3 Pt 2):1125-6
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aptitude Tests - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Engineering - education
Humans
Likelihood Functions
School Admission Criteria - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Universities
Abstract
This brief article provides a description of some new ideas about admission of university engineering students in Sweden. The current system of admission is based on upper-secondary school grades and the Swedish Scholastic Assessment Test. These measures are used for admission to all higher education. For many reasons, ideas for a new admission model have been proposed. This model includes a sector-oriented admission test, which the universities are supposed to use for different purposes, such as selection, eligibility, diagnostics, and recruitment.
Notes
Comment On: Psychol Rep. 2003 Oct;93(2):399-40914650662
PubMed ID
15362381 View in PubMed
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Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256618
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;60(1):40-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Christine Friestad
Rustad Åse-Bente
Ellen Kjelsberg
Author Affiliation
1Oslo University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;60(1):40-6
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Abuse - diagnosis - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Family Conflict - psychology
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Life Change Events
Likelihood Functions
Norway
Prisoners - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Spouse Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Statistics as Topic
Substance-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide, Attempted - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway.
A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse.
Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse.
The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.
PubMed ID
23045353 View in PubMed
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Age-related health risk behaviors of adolescents with physical disabilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180059
Source
Soz Praventivmed. 2004;49(2):132-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Catherine A Steele
Ilze V Kalnins
Beth E Rossen
Douglas W Biggar
Joseph A Bortolussi
Jeffrey W Jutai
Author Affiliation
Bloorview MacMillan Centre, Toronto.
Source
Soz Praventivmed. 2004;49(2):132-41
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living - classification
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Child
Disabled Children - rehabilitation - statistics & numerical data
Female
Food Habits
Health Behavior
Health education
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Surveys
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Male
Ontario
Risk-Taking
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
To investigate age-related differences in health risk behaviors in 11-12-, 13-14-, and 15-16-year-old adolescents with physical disabilities.
Health survey data from 319 adolescents with physical disabilities were compared with the same data from 7,020 adolescents in a national sample.
Significant age-related differences were found for having tried smoking, smoking, having tasted an alcoholic drink, having been drunk, and using prescription drugs for recreational purposes. However, changes were modest and engagement of 15-16-year-old adolescents with physical disabilities was similar to 11-12-year-olds in the general population. Analysis of associations between disability status and health risk behaviors while controlling for age and sex showed that disability is associated with a lower likelihood of having tried smoking, smoking, having tasted an alcoholic drink, drinking, having been drunk, having used drugs, having used prescription drugs for recreational purposes, and eating sweets; a higher likelihood of not engaging in physical exercise, not eating fresh produce, and eating high-fat foods; and non-significant for seat-belt use.
Health promotion programs about health risk behaviours designed for adolescents in the general population may not be appropriate for adolescents with physical disabilities.
PubMed ID
15150865 View in PubMed
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439 records – page 1 of 44.