Research over the past 20 years has shown that judgments of facial attractiveness are universal; people from all cultures and backgrounds rank and rate faces for attractiveness the same. As such a model for objectively rating facial attractiveness is theoretically plausible, if designed, it would have many uses, including outcomes analysis in plastic surgery of the face. The authors tested a schematic facial composite/prototype mathematical model (the phi mask created by Dr. Stephen Marquardt) as a method for measuring facial attractiveness in an objective manner.
Thirty-seven male and 35 female faces of 18- to 30-year-old whites of European extraction were rated, as were 31 composite faces of each sex using both Internet and direct survey judges. The faces were tested against the phi mask model analyzing deviations of facial anthropometric points from corresponding phi mask nodal points using equivalent weightings, and weightings arrived at by way of multiple linear regression.
The deviation from the phi mask significantly correlates with attractiveness, explaining from 25 to 75 percent of the variance in attractiveness judgments, depending on the methodology used.
The phi mask model supports averageness or prototypicality of the face as being the major component of the facial attractiveness gestalt and is a first step in producing an objective system for measuring facial attractiveness.
Recent reports suggest that adverse effects on sexual function occur in up to 50% of patients who are treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. Previously cited low rates were more likely a function of underreporting than underoccurrence. There is less evidence about rates of dysfunction with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) and reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) antidepressants. The purpose of this report is to evaluate disturbances in sexual drive/desire and arousal/orgasm in 107 patients who met criteria for major depressive disorder and received treatment with either moclobemide, paroxetine, sertraline, or venlafaxine.
All consenting eligible patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder completed the Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, version 1 (SFQ) and were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) prior to and after 8 or 14 weeks of antidepressant therapy. Analyses were carried out to examine the effect of gender, drug type, pretreatment level of sexual dysfunction, and drug response on reported sexual dysfunction.
Compared with women, men experienced a significantly greater level of drug-related impairment in drive/desire (p
OBJECTIVE: To present normative data from Norway using the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BSFI, the first patient self-administered questionnaire to assess male sexuality, and used in the USA) in men aged 20-79 years, examine the psychometric properties of the BSFI, explore the impact of sexual function and other variables on overall sexual satisfaction, and compare American and Norwegian normative data. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From public official address lists 3500 men aged 20-79 years were invited to take part in an anonymous questionnaire study, including the BSFI. Altogether 1185 (34%) responded, and the response rates varied with age. RESULTS: There was increasingly reduced sexual function concerning drive, erection, ejaculation, and problem assessment with age, and most of the age-effect started at >50 years old. Overall sexual satisfaction followed the same trend, but with a weaker association with age. Analyses of factor structure and internal consistency of the BSFI supported a one-factor solution with good internal consistency. Drive, erection, ejaculation, and problem assessment explained 28% of the variance in overall sexual satisfaction. Being younger and having a sexual partner were also associated with high scores of overall sexual satisfaction. American and Norwegian normative data in the BSFI dimensions were markedly similar. CONCLUSION: The BSFI is a short and discrete screening tool for sexual function, and for most clinical and research purposes we recommend using the BSFI as a one-dimensional scale.
The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze use of pornographic material in a representative sample of adult Norwegians. The data collection was carried out by means of a standardized questionnaire administered via personal telephone interviews. Among the 90% of participants who reported ever having examined pornography, 76% reported examining a pornographic magazine, 67% had watched a pornographic film, and 24% had examined pornography on the Internet. Significant gender differences emerged in the reporting. The percentage of men and women who reported frequent use of pornography was small. We identified three dimensions of attitudes toward pornography: pornography as a means of sexual enhancement, pornography as a moral issue, and social climate. These attitude dimensions were included in path models as intermediating variables between demographic variables (age, gender, and level of education) and frequency of reading or watching pornographic materials. These models explained 36% of the variance in frequency of watching pornographic films, 35% of the variance in frequency of reading pornographic magazines, and 21% of the variance in frequency of watching pornography on the Internet.
Low sexual desire has been studied more extensively in women than in men.
The study aims to analyze the correlates of distressing lack of sexual interest and the self-assessed reasons for the lack of sexual interest among heterosexual men from three countries.
A web-based survey was completed by 5,255 men aged 18-75 years from Portugal, Croatia, and Norway.
We used an item that assesses lack of sexual interest from the British NATSAL 2000. Anxiety and depression were measured with the SCL-ANX4 and SCL-DEP6. Relationship intimacy was measured using a five-item version of the Emotional Intimacy Scale. A shortened version of the Sexual Boredom Scale was used to assess proneness to sexual boredom in relation to the duration of relationship, and personal distress was evaluated using an item created for this study.
Distressing lack of sexual interest lasting at least 2 months in the previous year was reported by 14.4% of the participants. The most prevalent comorbidity among these men was erectile difficulty (48.7%). Men with low confidence levels in erectile function, not feeling attracted to the partner, and those in long-term relationships were more likely to have experienced lack of sexual interest than were men with high confidence levels and those who felt attracted to their partner and those in shorter-term relationships. Professional stress was the most frequently reported reason for lack of sexual interest. Sexual boredom as a result of a long-term relationship was significantly and negatively correlated with the level of intimacy (r?=?-0.351, P?
This study investigates information about the sexual effects of cancer on patients, irrespective of age or diagnosis, in terms of fertility, sexual desire and sexual function. A quantitative study was conducted and the results are based on responses from 106 questionnaires. The results show that 48% of respondents had not received any information in the areas of inquiry. There was a difference between information wished for and provided, and the largest difference was in the question of whether sexual activity should be avoided. A significantly higher number of men than women received information about effects on fertility and sexual desire. The results also showed that information about sexuality needs to be taken into account to a greater extent than is presently being done.
The nature of sexual satisfaction and its relationship with relationship satisfaction was examined in a population-based Finnish sample of men and women between 33 and 43 years. Both men and women wished to experience kissing and petting, sexual fantasies, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse more often. Sexual satisfaction, defined as no discrepancy between desired frequency and actual frequency of sexual behaviors, was associated with relationship satisfaction. In both sexes, sexual satisfaction with vaginal intercourse as well as kissing and petting was positively associated with relationship satisfaction, whereas higher desired and actual frequency of masturbation were negatively associated with relationship satisfaction.
Sexual behavior in connection with drug use and its implications for the risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among intravenous drug users (IVDUs) was investigated in a pilot study of 29 men (who injected drugs more than once a week for at least 6 months) at the Remand Prison in Stockholm from November, 1989, to January, 1990. A structured interview focusing on sexual history and current sexual behavior with and without drugs was employed. The median age of the subjects was 32 years. Six were HIV-seropositive. The main drugs presently used were amphetamine (18 men), heroin (9 men) and cocaine (2 men). Of the 29 men, 27 had experience of sexual activity while using amphetamine. Of these, 23 reported that they became more sexually excited when on amphetamine, 21 reported intensified orgasms, and 23 reported that the drug prolonged intercourse. All 29 men had been sexually active, but only 6 of the amphetamine users had had more than 10 partners during the last 3 years. Condom use was very low; it was reported by only 3 men during their last intercourse with a causal partner. The findings suggest that sexual HIV transmission among IVDUs is a clear risk, especially among amphetamine users, and that education about condom use is urgent.
This is a sexological study of a random sample of 225 40-yr-old women representative of the Danish female population at the age of 40. These women were questioned by a female physician utilizing a structured interview; 94% of the women invited to participate in this study agreed to do so. The purpose of this research was to elucidate sexual behaviour, experience, knowledge and attitudes. Some of the findings were the following. Menstruation still seems to be a taboo subject; 36% of this population knew little about this topic. 96% of these women had experienced orgasm at least once in their lives and 67.6% had experienced spontaneous libido. Genuine homosexuality appears to be a rare phenomenon. A monogamous heterosexual life style is the norm, as reflected by low number of partners and low frequency of infidelity. Yet, 35% of these woman had sexual problems. There is a need for advice and treatment of sexual difficulties in this population, but these are at present, in Denmark, not generally available.